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August 1, 2018

Alfonso XIII of Spain - Portrait - Retrato - In the Collection at McClure Archives, UCM, Warrensburg, MO

El reinado de Alfonso XIII es el periodo de la historia de España en el que reinó Alfonso XIII de Borbón

University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg, Missouri USA Collection 

Alfonso XIII of Spain

Reign of Alfonso XIII of Spain

The painting, seen full size in this image, was donated to the McClure in 1974 by Catherine Haymaker, an expert in Spain and a frequent traveler to Spain in the 1920s and 1930s. As Catherine used to tell it, she had dinner with Francisco Franco, and likely brought this painting back from Spain personally. Want to know more about Reinado Alfonso XIII? 
Reign of Alfonso XIII of Spain

King of Spain
 • 1885-1931 Alfonso XIII
President of the Council of Ministers
 • 1885-1890 Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
 • 1931 Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas
Legislature Cortes (until 1923)
 • High camera Senate
 • Low camera Congress
Historical period Centuries xix - xx
 •  Death of Alfonso XII November 15, 1885
 •  Regency of María Cristina 1885 - 1902
 •  Constitutional period 1902 - 1923
 •  Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera 1923 - 1930
 •  Dictablanda de Berenguer 1930 - 1931
 •  Proclamation of the Republic April 14, 1931
Currency Peseta
The reign of Alfonso XIII is the period in the history of Spain in which reigned Alfonso XIII de Borbón , who from the moment of his birth in May 1886 and was king, since his father Alfonso XII had died five months earlier. During his minority , the head of the State was played by his mother María Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorraine as regent until May of 1902 when he turned sixteen years of age and swore the Constitution of 1876 began his personal reign that was It lasted until April 14, 1931, when he had to go into exile after having proclaimed himself the Second Republic .

The reign is usually divided into several stages:
The regency of Maria Cristina de Habsburgo (1885-1902) was "a particularly significant period in the history of Spain , since in those years of the end of the century the system knew its stabilization, the development of liberal policies, but also the appearance of great fissures that in the international terrain were shaped by the colonial war , first, and with the USA, later, provoking the military and diplomatic defeat that led to the loss of the colonies after the Treaty of Paris of 1898 . On the inside, Spanish society experienced a considerable mutation, with the emergence of political realities as significant as the emergence of regionalisms and peripheral nationalisms , the strengthening of a worker movement of double affiliation, socialist and anarchist , and the persistent persistence, although decreasing, of the republican and Carlist opposition ». 1
The constitutional period (1902-1923) is the period of his personal reign in which King Alfonso XIII accepted the role conferred by the 1876 ​​Constitution that governed during the Bourbon Restoration in Spain , although he did not limit himself to exercising a role symbolic but actively intervened in political life, especially in military matters, thanks to the relatively broad powers enjoyed by the Crown. The political king , the politician on the throne , was thus an obstacle to the transformation of the political regime of the Restoration into a parliamentary monarchy , and his intervention "became more pronounced in the moments in which the parties (of the turn) showed little internal cohesion and the opinion did not opt ​​for a leader in a clear way. In these circumstances, the decision of the monarch to hand over power to one or another political leader constituted a decisive participation in the internal politics of the parties. " 2
The dictatorship of Primo de Rivera (1923-1930) was the second period of the personal reign of Alfonso XIII in which the king did not oppose the coup d'état of Primo de Rivera that ended the liberal regime. In this way Alfonso XIII united his destiny to that of the Dictatorship, so when Primo de Rivera failed in his attempt to establish an authoritarian regime and submitted his resignation in January 1930, the monarchy itself was questioned.
The dictablanda of General Berenguer (1930-1931) could not prevent the growth of the republican option that led to the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic on April 14, 1931 and Alfonso XIII was forced to go into exile.

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