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Friday, July 6, 2012

May 7, 1865 "Little" Archie J Clement,Massacre at Kingsville, Johnson County, Missouri

James Younger gang crop
James-Younger Gang
With founding member Capt. Arch Clement,
Jesse Woodson and A. Frank James

James Gang with Arch Clement

On May 7, 1865 in Kingsville, Missouri - 110 Confederate guerrillas rode into the town of Kingsville. They proceeded to sack the town and burn down 5 houses. 8 were killed and 2 were wounded.








Frank James (right) and Little Archie Clement
This photo of Frank and Little Archie Clement was probably taken around the end of the Civil War in 1865 or so. Archie was a fellow Confederate guerrilla and a trusted friend of both James brothers(Frank James and Jesse James). Archie was also an early member of the James-Younger Gang.




Jesse James and Little Archie Clement
The man on the left is Jesse, and the man on the right is his closest friend during the Civil War, Little Archie Clement. This photo was taken in either 1864 or 1865. This is the only photo where Jesse's left hand is showing, so it was taken before he lost the tip of his middle left finger
On January 1,1846 Archie Clement was born in Kingsville, Johnson County, Missouri. Archie rode with Jesse James while being with Quantrill. Archie fought with Jesse at the Centralia Massacre. Jesse and Archie were so close to one another that Jesse had his younger half-brother named after him. It is said that Archie is the one that brought the James boys into bank robbery; he was one of the masterminds behind the Clay County Savings Association robbery on February 13,1866.


James Gang
1 Dave Poole    2 Arch Clement   3 Jesse W. James
Dec. 13, 1866---Little Arch Clement is lynched for crimes committed during the Civil War.
Johnson County, Missouri
A Civil War skirmish between 15 Federal Cavalrymen and about 40 Southern Guerrillas
From The Records of The Provost Marshal

On 11 June, 1864, a detachment of Company M, First Missouri State Militia,  left Holden, Missouri for a Scout in the Kingsville area. The detachment consisted of Corporal Joseph Parman and 14 enlisted men. They left at 9 A.M. and were to return the next day. They found nothing the first day and spent the night near the farm of Nancy Longacre. The Longacre family was a large one and nearly all of the men were either in the Confederate Army or with Quantrill's Guerrillas. Two of the Longacre men, a father and son, had been murdered by Kansas Troops.
They had just started out the next morning when they were overtaken by a large body of Guerrillas, led by Col. Richard Yeager and Capt. Bill Anderson. Twelve of the Federal Soldiers were killed. It appeared that at least four had surrendered, then were executed. One was scalped.
The Federals arrested Nancy Longacre and her 14 year old daughter, Martha (Mattie) and accused them of giving the Guerrillas information on the location of the Federal Troops. They were imprisoned in St. Louis and specifically asked if they had given the Guerrillas information about Parman and his squad. Of course, they denied any contact with Guerrillas. and were eventually released.
For more Longacre information, see Lady Bushwackers of Johnson County and Charles A. Longacre.

The Report of Corporal Parman
HDQRS. Co. M, Detach. First Cav., Mo State Militia
Holden, Mo., June 14, 1864
Captain: I have the honor to report to you, in pursuance of your request, movements of the men belonging to Company M, which I had on the scout under my command on the 11th and 12th instant: I moved with my command from camp on Saturday, the 11th instant, at 9 a.m., and proceeded west on the north side of the railroad, travelling some 15 miles; thence turned in a southeast direction, and marched to a point near the railroad some three miles west of Kingsville. Most of the distance marched on this day was in the brush, and saw but little sign of bushwhackers, finding only one trail, which I followed for some distance until we lost it by the parties separating. We camped for a part of the night near a Mrs. Longacre's, about one-half mile north of the railroad. On the morning of the 12th instant I moved with my men in a northeast direction from which I had camped, and had proceeded but a short distance when I discovered a large body of cavalry in my rear some 50 or 75 yards, and on the discovery of the enemy I formed my men in line and challenged the advancing party, who only increased their speed, and at this instant I ordered my men to fire on the enemy, which was done in a very few seconds. By this time my little detachment was entirely surrounded - only a small space toward the brush. By this time the bullets from the enemy's lines were falling like hail among us, and several of my men were killed. I remained in front of my line until the enemy had passed me, even some of them between me and my own lines, at which time I moved with all possible speed to the left, engaged one of the enemy, firing at him twice, when he turned, and, as I was in a helpless condition, my men nearly all killed, I made for camp with all speed possible. I feel satisfied that the enemy had been informed of my position and strength, as he had flanked me on the right and left before he showed himself in my rear. The attacking party was not less than 40 strong, and from the best information I have I think the whole command of the enemy did not fall short of 80 men, and probably 100. The enemy were all dressed in full Federal uniform and had the regular badges worn by our men on their hats and caps; small part of them wearing Federal overcoats.
I learned that the party was commanded by Colonel Yeager, of the rebel army, assisted by Bill Anderson, who is a captain of a guerilla band. Yeager informed the citizens that he asked no quarter and would give none. I lost in this unfortunate affair 12 of my command, only 2 escaping. The men, after being killed, were stripped of all their outer clothing and everything valuable was taken from their persons, and the enemy scalped 1 man after they had killed and stripped him. The enemy marched from the north during the night, returning toward the Sni Hills after the engagement.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Joseph V. Parman
Corporal, Company M, First Cavalry, Missouri State Militia

Military Reports of the Kingsville Massacre

The following reports were gleaned from Dyer's 'The Compendium of the Rebellion." Additional information can be found in these volumes as well as the "Adjutant General of Missouri Report of 1865." They were searched at: 

Headquarters Missouri National Guard
Office of the Adjutant General
1717 Industrial Drive
Jefferson City MO 65101


Warrensburg, Mo., June 12, 1864 - 3:30 p.m.
Captain Rouell,
Pleasant Hill, Mo.:
Troops near Holden had a fight this morning and had 12 men killed. Particulars not known.
E.B. Brown
Brigadier-General of Volunteers


Warrensburg, Mo., June 12, 1864
Colonel Ford,
Kansas City:
Company M, First Missouri State Militia, had a fight this morning near Holden and had 12 men killed. Particulars not known.
E.B. Brown
Brigadier-General, Commanding


Report of Captain Wyckoff, First Missouri State Militia Cavalry

HDQRS. Detach. First Cav., Missouri State Militia
Holden, June 14, 1864

On the morning of June 11, 1864, in obedience to orders, I ordered Captain Eads, Company M, to detail from his command 1 non-commissioned officer and 14 privates of his company for a scout north of Kingsville, who marched at 9 a.m. of the same day under the following order:

Corporal Parman and 14 men of Company M will proceed to scout the country north of Kingsville and along Crawford Fork, and return to camp at 12 m. of the 12th of June, 1864. Provide your men with one day's rations.

John Wyckoff,
Captain, Commanding Detachment.


The following is the report of Corporal Parman:

HDQRS. Co. M, Detach. First Cav., Mo State Militia
Holden, Mo., June 14, 1864

Captain: I have the honor to report to you, in pursuance of your request, movements of the men belonging to Company M, which I had on the scout under my command on the 11th and 12th instant: I moved with my command from camp on Saturday, the 11th instant, at 9 a.m., and proceeded west on the north side of the railroad, travelling some 15 miles; thence turned in a southeast direction, and marched to a point near the railroad some three miles west of Kingsville. Most of the distance marched on this day was in the brush, and saw but little sign of bushwhackers, finding only one trail, which I followed for some distance until we lost it by the parties separating. We camped for a part of the night near a Mrs. Longacre's, about one-half mile north of the railroad. On the morning of the 12th instant I moved with my men in a northeast direction from which I had camped, and had proceeded but a short distance when I discovered a large body of cavalry in my rear some 50 or 75 yards, and on the discovery of the enemy I formed my men in line and challenged the advancing party, who only increased their speed, and at this instant I ordered my men to fire on the enemy, which was done in a very few seconds. By this time my little detachment was entirely surrounded - only a small space toward the brush. By this time the bullets from the enemy's lines were falling like hail among us, and several of my men were killed. I remained in front of my line until the enemy had passed me, even some of them between me and my own lines, at which time I moved with all possible speed to the left, engaged one of the enemy, firing at him twice, when he turned, and, as I was in a helpless condition, my men nearly all killed, I made for camp with all speed possible. I feel satisfied that the enemy had been informed of my position and strength, as he had flanked me on the right and left before he showed himself in my rear. The attacking party was not less than 40 strong, and from the best information I have I think the whole command of the enemy did not fall short of 80 men, and probably 100. The enemy were all dressed in full Federal uniform and had the regular badges worn by our men on their hats and caps; small part of them wearing Federal overcoats.

I learned that the party was commanded by Colonel Yeager, of the rebel army, assisted by Bill Anderson, who is a captain of a guerrilla band. Yeager informed the citizens that he asked no quarter and would give none. I lost in this unfortunate affair 12 of my command, only 2 escaping. The men, after being killed, were stripped of all their outer clothing and everything valuable was taken from their persons, and the enemy scalped 1 man after they had killed and stripped him. The enemy marched from the north during the night, returning toward the Sni Hills after the engagement.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Joseph V. Parman
Corporal, Company M, First Cavalry, Missouri State Militia

Report of Captain Wyckoff
Aside from the report of Corporal Parman, I have followed and crossed the trail of the party at a number of points between where the slaughter occurred and the Sni Hills sufficient to enable me to know that it came from the north and returned to the north as soon as it had done its work of crime. The point of attack is about 8 miles from this camp. On the arrival of Corporal Parman at Kingsville, at which I had 11 of my company under Sergeant Triplett, Captain Duncan mounted his horse and came to this place immediately. We were engaged at inspection of arms when we received the intelligence. I immediately ordered my company to saddle and mount; in twenty minutes had 50 of my company in the saddle and on the march. Captain Eads had marched on receipt of the news with 20 of Company M, who were mounted for a two day's scout at the time of the arrival of Captain Duncan. I came up with Captain Eads at Kingsville, where I found Sergeant Triplett and his squad mounted and in line. He informed me that the enemy came in sight of Kingsville in such force, and the information received from Corporal Parman was such as to make him think best to keep possession of the buildings at that place until he could get assistance from this place. He joined me and we moved to the place of the massacre, where I found the men that had been killed strewn along for about one-half mile, 5 dead on the ground where they had formed their line, the others near the brush and in the brush in front of them, where I am informed they were met by another party that was in ambush and cut them off from the brush. My opinion is, from the fact of the men being shot in the eyes, that 4 of the men surrendered and were afterward shot and stripped of everything valuable and Corporal Ireland scalped.

I immediately ordered a sufficient number of carts from section 114 of Pacific Railroad Company to convey the dead to camp, which was the best and only conveyance to be had in a reasonable time. They were promptly furnished, and the dead gathered and sent to Holden, under Lieutenant Cobb, with orders to give them the best burial in his power, which was done. The dead being gathered, and my scouts called in which I had out to ascertain the course the enemy had taken, in which they had been unsuccessful, I started with 58 enlisted men of my company and 18 men of Company M, Captain Eads and Lieutenant Triplett, in a southern course about 2 miles; came on a trail of about 80 or 100 men bearing southwest, which I followed about 2 miles and ascertained it to be the trail in which they had come in. I turned north and bore around to the east about 5 miles, where we struck the trail going in the direction of Chapel Hill, which soon became [fainter] as when going down, and soon began to scatter and bear west. The trail we followed struck into the Sni Hills, about 3 miles west of the Widow Hill's, where Lewis Spainhowers has lived since early spring. Here we had a short skirmish with them, in which 1 of them was severely if not mortally wounded, instantly falling from his horse. They fired rapidly from the brush. I instantly dismounted 40 men, and deployed them as skirmishers and searched the brush, but they were gone; they had moved in a direction a little north of Lone Jack. It was now night, but as the men were good we marched on, having been joined by about 40 of the Colorado troops, with whom my pickets had a skirmish; but hearing of their fire, and having knowledge of their being in the country, and getting in a position where I could see their commander, gave the signal and soon had things all right; no damage done to either party. We remained together until the moon set. Being within 3 miles of Pleasant Hill we marched there and remained until morning, my men having had nothing to eat since the morning before, but were treated very kindly by the soldiers and officers at that place and furnished with breakfast and forage. June 13, breakfast over, I marched from Pleasant Hill north of east, crossing a number of small streams, the most of the way through brush and woods, very thick, 5 miles south of Lone Jack. Started some guerrillas from an old house in the brush; did not get closer than 400 yards; did not see but 2, though there were more in the party; they ran east. We continued in an easterly direction until we arrived north of a point where the men had been killed on the previous day, turned south, examined the ground and brush with care, and am prepared to give my opinion of the affair at any proper time. Having no rations with us, and none at camp, we returned at 4 p.m. of the 13th of June. At near 11 o'clock received a dispatch from you to send out a scout; at 12 o'clock 25 of Company D and 25 of Company M left this camp under Lieutenants Cobb and Triplett; they are still out.

All of which is respectfully submitted to you.
John Wyckoff,
Captain, Commanding Detachment.

NOTES:
On June 30, Brigadier-General of Volunteers, E.B. Brown submitted a report that said, in part:
'I regret to say that in one instance the loss was in a great measure due to the negligence of the corporal who was in command, through which the lives of the men entrusted in his charge have been wantonly sacrificed.'
No specifics were given. Perhaps to have his 14 men turn and present a challenge in the face of such a large force and firepower was folly. Perhaps to have tried to flee to a better defensive position would have been better. A review of Corporal Parman's military records might shed light on charges made, if any.
As a rule, man-for-man, Federal troops were severely out-gunned. Normally, the troops carried a single-shot rifle and/or revolver, whereas the guerrilla often carried from two to six revolvers plus other assorted weapons. The Militia was caught in the open, and in an ambush such as this, would have used valuable time forming the skirmish line, all while the enemy was closing in great numbers and firing into them as rapidly as possible. The line probably broke almost immediately, the survivors scattering, trying to make a dash for the brush. Although often done, it is uncertain if Corporal Parman had his troops dismount to form the skirmish line.
(Shooting in the eye was a common practice the guerrillas used on captured Federal troops. Both sides had a tendency to immediately execute captured prisoners.)
Corporal Joseph V. Parman was born in KY about 1833. When he moved to Gentry County is unknown, but he was certainly there by about 1857 as his father died there. Joseph V. Parman married Nancy Fitzhugh March 10, 1867, probably in Gentry County. Nancy was born February 08, 1844 in Buchanan Co, MO and probably outlived Joseph, as she died on August 22, 1905 in Ellenorah, MO with notice being made that she was survived by 8 boys and 2 girls. She was buried in the Lone Star Cemetery, in north-east Gentry County.











  • Roster of Company M














  • Recruits known to be from Worth County














  • Dead and Buried victims and burials
















  • Letter written by Z.P. Cadle














  • Pension Jane Cadle Pension Requests














  • Yearly Report-1863 of the 1st Regiment














  • Yearly Report-1864 of the 1st Regiment














  • Kingsville Massacre ...Main






  • Archie J. Clement


    Clement, Archie J Anderson At age 17, he was Bill Andersons lieutenant and executioner and scalper. From Kingsville, Johnson County, MO. Small, blonde and grey-eyed, with a perpetual smile. When told to kill he used knife and pistol. He scalped and mutilated his victims when it pleased him. Took over Andersons command when he was killed 13 December 1866. Bacon Montgomery killed him in Lexington, MO.


    Archie J. Clement, Left, from Kingsville, Missouri
    (Three of Anderson's men in Sherman, Texas
    From left to right: Archie Clement, Dave Pool, and Dave Hendricks)
    Belle Starr’s wedding photgraph
    Many of the guests at Starr’s wedding were OUTLAWS! Present were Jesse James, Frank James, Perry Samuel, Archie Clement, Jim Younger, and John “King” Fisher.




    Anderson’s Head Devil” 
    Little Archie Clement

    Born in Moniteau County, Missouri in January 1846 in 1853 the Clement family moved to Cass County in the Western portion of the state and eventually to Johnson County, Missouri near the town of Kingsville in 1860-61. At 15 Archie enlisted in the 2nd Missouri Cavalry, Missouri State Guard in September of 1861 and served until December of 1861 and returning to Johnson County and shortly there after joining the Partisan Rangers, most probably first with Quantrill’s Company, but he seems to quickly have aligned himself with Bill Anderson, then a Lieutenant under Quantrill.
    Archibald Clement was small in stature; some say standing only five feet tall and weighing less than 130 lbs, this caused him to be given the appellation of “Little Archie” he also seemed to be a happy fellow or at least smiled a great deal and was also referred to as “Smiling Archie”. But Archie’s size belied ferociousness, he was apparently consummate killer with little compunction for how he completed the act, he also displayed a penchant for scalping his victim this lead to Archie being referred to as “Scalping Archie”.
    By age 17 Archie Clement was a Lieutenant in Bill Anderson’s more or less Independent Company of Partisan Rangers, and was often operating in command of an element on his own. Archie took part in most of the major actions that Andersons Company was involved in, including the raid on the German settlement of Concordia in Lafayette County, Missouri in 1863 where Clement allegedly decapitated a German after forcing him to guide the Partisan’s through militia lines and then placed the Germans head on a fence post as a warning to the other “Dutch”. Bodies of union troops and Missouri State Militia were often found baring notes reading “You come to hunt bush whackers. Now you are skelpt. Clemyent skelpt you. Wm. Anderson” it probably wasn’t Archie nor Anderson who wrote this particular note as it is doubtful that Archie would misspell his name and Andersons known writing reflects a higher degree of education. Archie continued to raise in command responsibility and his killings increased until he was roundly known as “Anderson’s Head Devil” or Anderson’s Head Demon”
    In 1864 during Prices Raid of 64 Archie commanded an element of Anderson’s command that raided Danville. New Florence, High Hill and other points east to near St. Charles Missouri, shortly after this raid Archie took command of Anderson’s Company after Anderson’s death and commanded it throughout the remainder of the war.
    The remainder of the of the war for Archie Clement would extend to 1866, Clement did not surrender and was connected to several bank robberies in Western Missouri, despite negotiations conducted on the part of the US by former partisan Dave Poole , Archie along with a contingent of Partisans remained “in the brush” refusing to surrender.
    During the election of 1866 Clement with a gang of 100 former partisans attacked the town of Lexington on election day and managed to intimidate the town enough that the Republican party was defeated in the general election. In response to this Gov. T. Fletcher dispatched Major Bacon Montgomery and a Company of Missouri State Militia to engage Clement and his men. True to tactics and form Archie faded into the hills and creek bottoms and avoided a major engagement with Montgomery’s force, Montgomery seemed content to garrison Lexington.
    In 1866 the Missouri State Legislature in response to political and sectional violence surrounding the election passed legislation requiring male adults to enroll in the militia, hearing this and seeing a chance to stick his thumb in the eye of the authorities most likely , Archie through Dave Poole sent word to Montgomery that in order to comply with the new law he wanted safe passage in and out of Lexington in order for he and his men to enroll in the militia, Montgomery stating he wished to avoid a major engagement in Lexington gave his permission. On December 13th , 1863 Archie Clement lead his former partisans into Lexington, legally enrolled in the militia and then led them out of Lexington without incident.
    However Archie returned to have drinks with a friend at the City Hotel once his men were safely out of town. Archie at the time was wanted for a bank robbery in Liberty Missouri and Montgomery attempted to have him taken into custody on that warrant. When the arrest was attempted Archie drew his revolvers and a gunfight ensued, despite being wounded in the chest Clement made it to his horse and raced down the street firing, until he was shot from his horse in front of the court house.
    When the militia reached Archie he had been wounded numerous times and was attempting to **** a revolver with his teeth. One of the Militiamen asked
    "Arch, you are dying. What do you want me to do with you?"
    To which Clement replied
    "I've done what I always said I would do ... die before I'd surrender."
    Bacon Montgomery would later say of the Clement incident, "I've never met better 'grit' on the face of the earth."


         
    http://theellisoncollection.com/gallery.php?gid=62
    http://canteymyerscollection.com/index.php?action=gallery;sa=view&id=285


    At age 17, he was Bill Anderson's lieutenant. Hailed from Kingsville, Johnson County, Missouri. Sometimes referred to as "Little Archie Clement."
    Archie was a small man, blonde and grey-eyed, with a perpetual smile. Clement took over Anderson's command when Anderson was killed on October 26, 1864. Bacon Montgomery killed Archie Clement in Lexington, MO on December 13, 1866.
         Archibald (Archie) Clement or "Little Arch"  was a Confederate guerrilla leader in the American Civil War, known for his brutality towards Union soldiers and pro-Union civilians in Missouri.
        Archie Clement was born in Moniteau County, Missouri, on January 01, 1846. The family moved to Johnson County in 1853, then to Cass County, then to Kingsville, Johnson county about 1861.
        At age 15, Archie enlisted in the Confederate Army and served two months and nineteen days, then was discharged.
         He joined the guerillas under William T. Anderson, and became known as Bloody Bill's most trusted compatriot. At age 17, he was Bill Anderson's lieutenant. Archie was a small man, blonde and grey-eyed, with a perpetual smile. Standing just over five feet tall and weighing about 130 pounds, Clement's slight stature belied his ferocity, as he was known to be an expert pistol shot and fearless under fire. He was often referred to as "Little Archie Clement."  
        William "Bloody Bill" Anderson, Confederate guerilla and outlaw, was born in Missouri and in 1861 was a resident of Council Groves, Kansas, where he and his father and brothers achieved a reputation as horse thieves and murderers. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was forced by his Unionist neighbors to flee to Clay County, Missouri, where he became a guerilla leader notorious for leading raids along the Kansas-Missouri border and infamous for scalping his victims. He often decorated the bridle of his horse with Yankee scalps. Especially heinous was his raid against the German settlers of Lafayette County, Missouri, in July 1863.
        Anderson's unit was a part of Quantrill's Guerrillas. Prominent in his band were Archie Clement, Frank James, and later Jesse James.
        On August 21, 1863, Anderson and his gang of about thirty joined William C. Quantrill in the celebrated Lawrence, Kansas, raid, in which Anderson was reputed to have been the most bloodthirsty of all of the 450 raiders.
        Archie Clement took a prominent role in all major operations of Anderson's unit in 1864, including the Centralia Massacre, looting and burning buildings and terrifying the local populace. They barricaded the tracks of the Northern Missouri Railroad, and forced a train to stop. They robbed the civilian passengers, and killed 21 Union soldiers who were returning home to Iowa and northwest Missouri on furlough. Anderson left one Union sergeant alive for a possible prisoner exchange; the rest he had stripped, shot, and scalped or otherwise mutilated.
        Upon Anderson's death on October 27, 1864, Archie Clement took command of his unit, continuing military action into the next year, even after the Civil War ended with the surrender at Lee's army in Virginia. Clement took over Anderson's command when Anderson was killed on October 26, 1864. While many of his comrades eventually surrendered, Archie never did.
        By the beginning of 1866, Clement steered himself and his friends into a new profession; bank robbery. On February 13, 1866, a group of gunmen carried out the first daylight, peacetime, armed bank robbery in U.S. history, when they held up the Clay County Savings Association in Liberty, Missouri, stealing some $60,000 in cash and bonds. The state authorities suspected Archie Clement of leading the raid. The bank happened to be run by the leading Radicals of Clay County, who had just held a public meeting for their party. The Radical governor posted a reward for Clement, while he and his men conducted further robberies that year. On election day of 1866, Clement led his crew into Lexington, Missouri, where they intimidated Radical voters and secured the election of a Conservative slate of candidates. 
         In later years, the list of suspects for the Clay County robbery would grow to include Frank James, Cole Younger, John Jarrette, Oliver Shepard, Bud and Donny Pence, Frank Gregg, Bill and James Wilkerson, Joab Perry, Ben Cooper, Red Monkus and Allen Parmer (who later married Susan James, Frank and Jesse's sister). The outlaws also killed George Wymore, a bystander on the street outside the bank.
        That crime began a string of robberies, many of which were linked to Clement's group of bushwhackers. The hold-up most clearly linked to the group was of Alexander Mitchell and Company in Lexington, Missouri, on October 30, 1866, which netted $2,011.50. 
        On December 13, 1866, Clement led a group of his men into Lexington to visit old friends, including Dave Pool. Major Bacon Montgomery, Army commander of the town, was anxious to head off a confrontation, and ordered Clement and his pals to register for the local militia at the court house and be on their way, which they did. Later, Archie returned to town alone, to drink with an old friend at the bar of the City Hotel. Upon getting word that Clement was in town and alone, Montgomery acted. His men confronted Archie at the bar, demanding his surrender. A gun battle erupted. Clement dashed outside, got on his horse and tried to flee, only to be riddled with bullets by a company of soldiers as he passed the court house. Archie's pursuers walked up to him as he lay in the street, where he was still trying to cock a revolver with his teeth. One of them asked, "Arch, you are dying. What do you want me to do with you?" to which he replied, "I've done what I always said I would do...die before I'd surrender." He was 19 years old.
        After Archie Clement's death, his guerrilla band continued to rob and be pursued by government troops, until his old friend Jesse James took command and they became the beginning of the James-Younger gang.

         The Clement Family


    Generation No. 1



    1.  EDWARD M.2 CLEMENT  (JOHNSON1) was born Abt. 1800 in Stokes County, North Carolina, and died Bet. 1855 - 1860 in probably in Cass County, Missouri.  He married MARY JANE HIATT Abt. 1828 in North Carolina, daughter of MOSES HIATT and PATSEY DONELLY.  She was born April 13, 1812 in Stokes County, North Carolina, and died Bet. 1870 - 1880 in probably in Cass or Johnson County, Missouri.



    Notes for EDWARD M. CLEMENT:

    The family moved to Moniteau County, Missouri about 1844, then to Johnson County in 1853, to Cass, then back to Johnson after 1860.

         

    Children of EDWARD CLEMENT and MARY HIATT are:

    2.           i.     EDWARD J.3 CLEMENT, b. February 23, 1829, Stokes County, North Carolina.

    3.          ii.     MARTHA E. CLEMENT, b. March 23, 1830, Stokes County, North Carolina; d. March 29, 1919, Lone Jack, Jackson County, Missouri.

                iii.     JANE E. CLEMENT, b. October 25, 1832, Stokes County, North Carolina; d. February 25, 1910, Cass County, Missouri.



    Notes for JANE E. CLEMENT:

    1860 United States Federal Census > Missouri > Johnson > Jackson

    Living with Charles J. and Nancy Clement



    1870 United States Federal Census > Missouri > Cass > Polk

    Living with Andrew and Juriah Miller. 



    4.         iv.     WASHINGTON V. CLEMENT, b. April 10, 1834, Stokes County, North Carolina; d. March 10, 1864, Civil War.

    5.          v.     SARAH ANN CLEMENT, b. January 30, 1836, Stokes County, North Carolina; d. 1940.

    6.         vi.     CHARLES J. CLEMENT, b. November 30, 1838, Stokes County, North Carolina; d. Sonoma County, California.

               vii.     WILLIAM A. CLEMENT, b. March 15, 1841, Stokes County, North Carolina.



    Notes for WILLIAM A. CLEMENT:

    Listed with the family in 1860 as age 20. No further record found. May have died in the war. May have been the brother of Archie called "Henry" who was with Quantrill.



    7.       viii.     JURIAH A. CLEMENT, b. May 25, 1843, Stokes County, North Carolina.

                ix.     ARCHIBALD CLEMENT, b. January 01, 1846, Missouri; d. December 13, 1866, Lexington, Missouri.



    Notes for ARCHIBALD CLEMENT:

    Name: Clement, Archibald

    Rank: Private   Conflict: Civil War   Side: Confederate   Type of Unit: Cavalry

    Organization: Missouri State Guard   Name of Unit: 2nd Missouri Cavalry



    Clement, Archibald,  Pvt.   Co. E, 2nd Mo. Cav.   MSG--CSA

    Enlisted Sept. 26, 1861    Discharged Dec. 10, 1861

    Actual Service 2 months, 19 days    Paid $71.90 April 25, 1862.

    Muster Roll on file, Adj. Office, Jefferson City, Mo.





                 x.     GABRIEL H. CLEMENT, b. March 01, 1849, Missouri; d. Bef. 1860, probably Cass County, Missouri.

    8.         xi.     MARY FRANCES CLEMENT, b. August 19, 1851, Missouri; d. March 28, 1942.

               xii.     HANDY CLEMENT, b. Abt. 1853, Missouri.



    Notes for HANDY CLEMENT:

    Listed as age 7 in 1860. Not with her mother in 1870. No further record found.



              xiii.     HENRY CLEMENT, b. Abt. 1855, Missouri; d. Bef. 1870, probably Johnson county, Missouri.



    Notes for HENRY CLEMENT:

    Some rosters list Henry Clement, brother of Archie, as a member of Quantrill's Guerrillas. Obviously, Henry was much too young. It's possible that the Clement listed as Henry was actually another brother, William Clement.

    Generation No. 2

    2.  EDWARD J.3 CLEMENT (EDWARD M.2, JOHNSON1) was born February 23, 1829 in Stokes County, North Carolina.  He married SUSAN CRUM May 23, 1850 in Moniteau County, Missouri.  She was born Abt. 1830 in Virginia.

    Notes for EDWARD J. CLEMENT:
    1870 United States Federal Census > California > Los Angeles > El Monte
         
    Children of EDWARD CLEMENT and SUSAN CRUM are:
                  i.     WILLIAM4 CLEMENT, b. Abt. 1851, Missouri.
    9.          ii.     JOHNSON CLEMENT, b. Abt. 1854, Missouri.
                iii.     GEORGE CLEMENT, b. Abt. 1856, Missouri; m. MOLLIE E. MORRELL; b. Abt. 1859, Texas.

    Notes for GEORGE CLEMENT:
    1880 United States Federal Census > California > Los Angeles > Westminster > District 29

                iv.     HENRY CLEMENT, b. Abt. 1864, California. 

    3.  MARTHA E.3 CLEMENT (EDWARD M.2, JOHNSON1) was born March 23, 1830 in Stokes County, North Carolina, and died March 29, 1919 in Lone Jack, Jackson County, Missouri.  She married FLAVIOUS JOSEPHUS HOWARD December 27, 1849 in Moniteau county, Missouri, son of JOSEPH HOWARD.  He was born Abt. 1823 in North Carolina, and died Bet. 1864 - 1870 in Missouri (Civil War?).

    Notes for MARTHA E. CLEMENT:
    1870 United States Federal Census > Missouri > Johnson > Kingsville - same page as her mother.
    1880 United States Federal Census > Missouri > Cass > Polk > District 39
    1900 United States Federal Census > Missouri > Cass > Polk > District 39
    1910 United States Federal Census > Missouri > Jackson > Van Buren > District 215

    Notes for FLAVIOUS JOSEPHUS HOWARD:
    1850 United States Federal Census > Missouri > Johnson > Jackson
    1860 United States Federal Census > Missouri > Johnson > Jackson - same page as Charles J. Clement

    8th Regiment, Missouri Infantry - Confederate
     Howard, Clement
     Howard, F.J.
     Howard, George W.
     Howard, J.A.
     Howard, Thomas J.
         
    Children of MARTHA CLEMENT and FLAVIOUS HOWARD are:
                  i.     JOSEPH E.4 HOWARD, b. Abt. 1851.
                 ii.     ELIZABETH HOWARD, b. Abt. 1856, Missouri.
                iii.     RUFUS K. HOWARD, b. Abt. 1857, Johnson County, Missouri; d. Bef. 1870, Johnson County, Missouri.
                iv.     JEREMIAH HOWARD, b. November 1863, Missouri.
                 v.     JESSIE HOWARD, b. February 1869, Missouri. 

    4.  WASHINGTON V.3 CLEMENT (EDWARD M.2, JOHNSON1) was born April 10, 1834 in Stokes County, North Carolina, and died March 10, 1864 in Civil War.  He married MARY FRANCIS CUNNINGHAM October 28, 1852 in Johnson County, Missouri.  She was born Abt. 1835 in Tennessee.

    Notes for WASHINGTON V. CLEMENT:
    1860 United States Federal Census > Kansas Territory > Linn > Valley
    ----------
    Name: Washington Clemons ,  
    Residence: Blooming Grove, Kansas 
    Enlistment Date: 24 July 1861
    Side Served: Union 
    State Served: Kansas 
    Service Record: Enlisted as a Private on 24 July 1861
    Enlisted in Company D, 10th Infantry Regiment Kansas on 11 February 1862.
    Died of disease Company D, 10th Infantry Regiment Kansas on 10 March 1864 in Alton, IL
    Name: Washington V. Clement
    Service Info.: PVT US ARMY CIVIL WAR 
    Death Date: 10 Mar 1864
    Cemetery: Alton National Cemetery 
    Cemetery Address: 600 Pearl Street Alton, IL 62003 
    Buried At: Section B Site 30 

    Notes for MARY FRANCIS CUNNINGHAM:
    Remarried to John Priddy after Washington's death.  Lived in Henry Co., MO in 1870, then in Cass Co. in 1880.
         
    Children of WASHINGTON CLEMENT and MARY CUNNINGHAM are:
                  i.     MARY4 CLEMENT, b. Abt. 1854, Missouri.
                 ii.     SARAH CLEMENT, b. Abt. 1856, Missouri.
                iii.     LOUISA CLEMENT, b. Abt. 1862, Kansas. 

    5.  SARAH ANN3 CLEMENT (EDWARD M.2, JOHNSON1) was born January 30, 1836 in Stokes County, North Carolina, and died 1940.  She married ISAM HELMS July 07, 1852 in Johnson County, Missouri, son of HOUSTON HELMS and ANNIE GILLIAM.  He was born Abt. 1830 in Missouri.
         
    Children of SARAH CLEMENT and ISAM HELMS are:
                  i.     HENRY4 HELMS, b. Abt. 1853.
                 ii.     SARAH HELMS, b. Abt. 1854.
                iii.     HOUSTON HELMS, b. Abt. 1856.
                iv.     MARY HELMS, b. Abt. 1859. 

    6.  CHARLES J.3 CLEMENT (EDWARD M.2, JOHNSON1) was born November 30, 1838 in Stokes County, North Carolina, and died in Sonoma County, California.  He married NANCY M. HARRIS November 15, 1855 in Johnson County, missouri.  She was born July 03, 1838 in North Carolina, and died February 17, 1913 in Sonoma County, California.

    Notes for CHARLES J. CLEMENT:
    1860 United States Federal Census > Missouri > Johnson > Jackson
    1880 Anderson, Mendocino, California
         
    Children of CHARLES CLEMENT and NANCY HARRIS are:
                  i.     ANNE ELIZA4 CLEMENT, b. October 11, 1863, Missouri.
                 ii.     PAMELA BELLE CLEMENT, b. October 1865, Colorado.
                iii.     AMANDA ELLEN CLEMENT, b. November 25, 1868, Colorado.
                iv.     JESSE EDWARD CLEMENT, b. December 13, 1871, California; d. January 29, 1953, Mendocino County, California.
                 v.     LAURIE F. CLEMENT, b. Abt. 1879, California. 

    7.  JURIAH A.3 CLEMENT (EDWARD M.2, JOHNSON1) was born May 25, 1843 in Stokes County, North Carolina.  She married ANDREW J. MILLER April 14, 1858 in Cass County, Missouri.  He was born Abt. 1833 in Tennessee.

    Notes for ANDREW J. MILLER:
    1870 United States Federal Census > Missouri > Cass > Polk
         
    Children of JURIAH CLEMENT and ANDREW MILLER are:
                  i.     MARY4 MILLER, b. Abt. 1859, Missouri; d. Bef. 1870, Missouri.
                 ii.     WILLIAM MILLER, b. Abt. 1865, Missouri.
                iii.     ROSIE MILLER, b. Abt. 1867, Missouri.
                iv.     JOSEPH MILLER, b. 1869, Missouri. 

    8.  MARY FRANCES3 CLEMENT (EDWARD M.2, JOHNSON1) was born August 19, 1851 in Missouri, and died March 28, 1942.  She married ROBERT ARCHIBALD WOOLDRIDGE December 24, 1868 in Johnson County, Missouri, son of JOHN WOOLDRIDGE and SARAH LACY.  He was born January 08, 1851 in Saline County, Missouri, and died March 06, 1936 in Cass County, Missouri.

    Notes for ROBERT ARCHIBALD WOOLDRIDGE:
    1870 United States Federal Census > Missouri > Johnson > Kingsville
         
    Children of MARY CLEMENT and ROBERT WOOLDRIDGE are:
                  i.     SARAH ANN4 WOOLDRIDGE, b. 1870.
                 ii.     LILLIE WOOLDRIDGE, b. June 1877; m. DARRAH.
                iii.     WILLIAM WOOLDRIDGE, b. July 1879.
                iv.     GIRL WOOLDRIDGE, b. December 07, 1888, East Lynne, Johnson County, Missouri; d. January 09, 1899, East Lynne, Johnson County, Missouri.
                 v.     JESTIE? WOOLDRIDGE, b. December 1889.
                vi.     LANA WOOLDRIDGE, b. June 15, 1890.
               vii.     TWIN WOOLDRIDGE, b. June 15, 1890, East Lynne, Johnson County, Missouri; d. July 07, 1890, East Lynne, Johnson County, Missouri.


    Generation No. 3
    9.  JOHNSON4 CLEMENT (EDWARD J.3, EDWARD M.2, JOHNSON1) was born Abt. 1854 in Missouri.  He married CASSIE MORRELL.  She was born Abt. 1859 in Texas.

    Notes for JOHNSON CLEMENT:
    1880 United States Federal Census > California > Los Angeles > Westminster > District 29 
         
    Children of JOHNSON CLEMENT and CASSIE MORRELL are:
                  i.     WILLIAM E.5 CLEMENT, b. December 05, 1876, California; d. April 13, 1946, Orange County, California.
                 ii.     ALLIE CLEMENT, b. January 15, 1879, California; d. January 13, 1948, Los Angeles, California; m. WINSLOW.

     http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~jrbakerjr/missouri/archie.htm












    Killed in Lexington, Missouri 1866
    Read more: http://civilwartalk.com/threads/andersons-head-devil.22337/#ixzz20IBLFty5
     http://image1.findagrave.com/photos/2008/175/27791667_121434781765.jpg
    Birth: Jan. 1, 1846
    Moniteau County
    Missouri, USA
    Death: Dec. 13, 1866
    Lexington
    Lafayette County
    Missouri, USA

    Civil War Lieutenant, Outlaw. In 1861 Clement joined the Confederate guerillas under CSA Captain William "Bloody Bill" Anderson, and by the time he was 17 became Lieutenant. He was a small man, standing just over five feet tall and weighing about 130 pounds. His slight stature belied his ferocity, as he was known to be an expert pistol shot and fearless under fire. He was often referred to as "Little Archie Clement." He took a prominent role in all major operations of Anderson's unit, including the infamous Lawrence, Kansas raid where approximately 150 men were killed and the town burnt, as well as the Centralia Massacre in which 23 Union soldiers riding a train on furlough were robbed and shot. Upon Anderson's death, he took command of his unit until the Civil War ended. On February 13, 1866, he was thought to have been the leader of the outlaw gang consisting of the James brothers and other fellow guerrillas that held up the Clay County Savings Association in Liberty, Missouri (the first daylight US bank robbery) and also robbed the Alexander Mitchell and Company in Lexington, Missouri. In December 1866, Archie sent word to the military authorities in Lexington, Missouri that he and some men wanted to come into town and register for muster into the Missouri State militia provided they would not be bothered by soldiers. After being informed they would not be molested, he and 26 men rode into town armed to the teeth. They had dinner, drinks, enrolled, and was told to leave town, which they did. A few minutes later Arch and another man returned to the hotel bar. Hearing that he was back in town, Army commander Major Bacon Montgomery sent three men to arrest him. When the soldiers entered the saloon, Archie pulled out his guns and started shooting, ran out the door, and jumped on his horse. and rode off. He was shot down by hidden riflemen shooting out the courthouse windows. (bio by: RonMac)

    Burial:
    Arnold Cemetery
    Wellington
    Lafayette County
    Missouri, USA
    Plot: NW corner

    Maintained by: Find A Grave
    Originally Created by: RonMac
    Record added: Jun 24, 2008
    Find A Grave Memorial# 27791667


    Standing about five feet tall and weighing in at a stout 130 pounds, Archie Clement may have been the most feared—and perhaps the most sociopathic—of all Bill Anderson’s guerrillas. Clement was best-known for scalping and mutilating the corpses of Unionists—military or civilian—and served Anderson as a lieutenant during the massacres at Centralia. In one particular instance, a note was left on a dead Union man that read: You come to hunt bush whackers. Now you are skelpt. Clemyent skelpt you.Following Anderson’s death Clement took command of his guerrilla company and in the wake of Appomattox he refused to surrender. In 1866 Clement led a group of ex-bushwhackers (including Jesse James) on a violent crime spree in Missouri. After violently influencing the outcome of an election in Lexington, Missouri, Archie Clement was tracked to a saloon by Union soldiers. In the process of capturing Clement a gunfight erupted; with a bullet in his chest, Clement managed to escape and mount his horse. Shortly thereafter, Clement was shot off of his horse and Union soldiers reportedly found him downed in the street attempting to cock a revolver with his teeth.

    Read more: http://civilwartalk.com/threads/andersons-head-devil.22337/#ixzz20IBtfIFi



    The Beard Brothers
    Little known members of Quantrill's Guerrillas
    Cass and Johnson Counties, Missouri
    This information is from various sources.
    Some information is documented and some is not.
    As with any information on line, you should verify it yourself before accepting it as fact.     
    Corrections welcome - email:   JRBAKERJR

    William King, Kingsville, MO Namesake Grave Marker
    Old Kingsville, MO Schoolhouse


        The Beard brothers left Sumner County, Tennessee in 1859 and went to Cass County, Missouri. Samuel married Martha Emmerson and in 1860, Frank was living with them.
        They already had relatives in the area. One cousin was a schoolteacher who had the Younger brothers in his class. With the Kansas Jayhawkers raiding Cass and Johnson Counties almost daily, it wasn't long before the Beards were involved. Then the Civil War begain and, as Tennesseans, they supported the Southern cause. At least two of the brothers, and possibly four, joined Quantrill's Guerrillas.
        On 10 April, 1862, John Smith Beard was murdered by Jayhawkers in Cass County. He was the first brother to die for the South.
        On 6 September, 1863, Frank and Samuel Beard, Noah Webster, John Webster, William and Perry Hays, and Henry McAninch, were surrounded by eighty Federals and Jayhawkers in a house near Howard's Mill in Kingsville Township, Johnson County. It appeared a hopeless situation, but these desperate Guerrillas resolved to cut through it or die. 
       A pistol in each hand, and firing as they ran, they dashed out of the house at the nearest Federals, shoulder to shoulder.    
        At the first volley, both of the Beard boys fell dead. Then Perry Hays was shot through the heart. McAninch, bored through one arm and one leg, killed a Federal and climbed on his horse with the utmost difficulty.
        John Webster, as he fled, was literally run over by a Federal Lieutenant and crushed to the earth.  He lay on his back under the belly of the horse, it's rider above him reaching down and shooting at him as he was stretched out prostrate, and bruised and bleeding from the iron feet of the stallion, as seemingly ferocious as it's master. Webster rallied, however, almost instantly, and killed the Lieutenant as he sat above him on his horse.  His brother, Noah, seeing the desperate extremity he was in, came back to help him and was shot twice but not crippled in the effort. John Webster had now to go to Noah's assistance, which he did speedily on the Lieutenant's own horse, taking up his brother behind him and escaping without difficulty from all pursuit.
        In this savage combat, five Federals were killed, and three Guerrillas, the wounded Federals numbered eight and the wounded Guerrillas two.  Will Hays was not hurt, and as he and McAninch came out from the desperate press together, they ran upon two militiamen hurrying in the direction of the fight. Hays halted them, shot them, and took from the body of the youngest a list of the names of certain citizens whose houses were to be burnt the next day.
        Samuel and Frank Beard were buried side by side in Pleasant Hill Cemetery. Samuel's wife, Martha, was buried beside them when she died in 1884.

    Notes:
        John N. Edwards mistakenly lists Samuel Beard as William. Brother William was also in Cass, but went on to Abingdon, Illinois in 1863. He died there in 1906.
        Howard's Mill was located in Kingsville Township. It was a horse mill built by Joe Howard in 1860, for whom it was named. It no longer exists.



    Place name:Howard's Mill
    Description:In Kingsville Township. A horse mill built by Joe Howard in 1860, for whom it was named. Mr. Howard settled in this county in 1836. He died in 1908. (Ed. King; Ferguson's "Historic and Caravan Trails," WARRENSBURG STAR JOURNAL, April 3, 1931; HIST. JOHNSON 1881, 523)
    Source:Johnson, Bernice E. "Place Names In Six Of The West Central Counties Of Missouri." M.A. thesis., University of Missouri-Columbia, 1933.



    TitleArchibald Clement (Arch or Little Archie)
    DescriptionCharcoal portrait drawing of Archibald Clement (sometimes spelled Clement) with a cigar in his mouth, dressed in a suit with a cravat and holding a pistol. Drawing is signed by the artist. Below the artist's signature is "Arch Clements" 
    written in different handwriting and black ink.
    Biographical NoteLittle Arch, or Archie, at age 17 became William ("Bloody Bill") Anderson's lieutenant. It is said that in one short year Clement eclipsed the record of every known guerrilla by killing 54 men. He was part of William C. Quantrill's famous raid on Lawrence, Kansas, August 21, 1863, and a major player in the Centralia, Missouri, massacre. After the Civil War he took up robbing banks until he was killed December 13, 1866, in Lexington, Missouri, at age 19.
    CreatorDillenbeck, A. L.
    DateCirca 1890s
    History of Johnson Co., MO 1881
    THE JOHNSON COUNTY MASSACRES
    Transcribed by James Baker
    Page 533 (Kingsville)
    Early in the late war, around this place, was a scene of considerable strife and hostile action by both parties. At first the people were principally on the side the south, and B. Hornsby was the only leader of the abolition party. In June 1861, the first secession flags were raised in the village. The unionists attempted to raise their flags on the same day, but failed for want of numbers, and the southern women took axes and cut
    the unionists' flagpoles to pieces. In October of the same year, Gen. "Jim" Lane, of Kansas notoriety, dashed into the town and sacked all of the stores. During the following winter (1862) Maj. Herrick, under Col. Gennison, dashed down upon the place and drove out all the southerners, and burned their dwellings. Near the village they took nine men prisoners, and on the following morning killed eight, and the ninth one
    they cut a swallowfork in his right ear, saying: "We'll know you when you are caught again", then set him at liberty. About this time, the Kansas clan of robbers set on fire a great number of the dwellings in the county. A person that was a witness says: "I counted one evening, while standing on Brushy Knob, one hundred sixty houses on fire". Slaves were ravished by these desperadoes in the presence of their master's
    family, and the women and children were driven out of their homes without a morsel of bread in the world, or money to buy food. On account of southern feeling, Mrs. Nancy Longacre and her daughter were taken prisoners, and sent to St. Louis. General Wm. King, the father of the King family, went south and did not return until the close of the war. To heap fuel upon the already kindled flames of the war, the unionists burned him, on the public streets, in effigy. When peace and quiet was being restored throughout the length and breadth of the land, and no one was dreaming of trouble, at the early dawn on May 7, 1865, about two hundred bushwackers under the daring leaders, Arch Clement, Dave Pool and Bill Anderson, swept down upon the quiet little village and commenced fire on the citizens that were just emerging from their night's repose. The citizens rallied for their lives with Capt. Leroy C. Duncan as their leader, but were so outnumbered that they could not withstand the assault of the raiders, who soon had possession of the town, which they left in ashes after robbing families of their money and clothing. On the evening previous to the massacre the vile murderers camped on Lause Run, a few miles away, in Cass county, and before they started for Kingsville, disposed of a prisoner by cutting his throat from ear to ear and leaving him on the spot. The following is a partial list of the dead and wounded: James Paul (M.), Abner Ryan, Walton Burris, W. H. Duncan, L. C. Duncan, S.F. Duncan and  Wm. Johnson.
    B. A. Crain, Wm. Dock and Hiram Rose were taken prisoners, but released. After this, soldiers were sentby the Governor for the protection of the citizens, but the war caused no further trouble.
    Source: http://www.rootsweb.com/~mojohnso/misc/MASSACRE.txt
    Kansas City Historical Soc., Kansas City, MO
    The following account is from the days of "Bloody" Bill Anderson and Quantrill's Raiders in Kansas &
    Missouri (1861 - 1865).  I'm pretty sure that the James Paul mentioned as killed/captured was James M.
    Paul, son of James A. Paul & Matilda Campbell.  James M. was born in 1829.  It's an interesting piece of
    history from the Civil War era.
    James Mark Paul.

    Clement, the outlaw leader

    Beginning in 1866, Clement led his supporters into a new profession: bank robbery, especially of banks associated with Missouri Unionists. On February 13, a group of gunmen carried out the first daylight, peacetime, armed bank robbery in U.S. history when they held up the Clay County Savings Association in Liberty, Missouri, stealing more than $58,000 in cash and bonds. The bank was owned and operated by former Union militia officers, who recently had conducted the first Republican Party rally in Clay County's history. The state authorities suspected Archie Clement of leading the raid and offered a reward for his capture. In later years, the list of suspects would grow to include Frank JamesCole Younger, John Jarrette, Oliver Shepard, Bud and Donny Pence, Frank Gregg, Bill and James Wilkerson, Joab Perry, Ben Cooper, Red Mankus and Allen Parmer (who later married Susan James, Frank and Jesse's sister). During the escape through the streets of Liberty, one of the gang shot dead an innocent bystander named George Wymore.[6] A string of robberies followed, many linked to Clement's gang. The hold-up most clearly linked to them was of Alexander Mitchell and Company in Lexington, Missouri, on October 30, 1866, in which they stole $2,000.

    Death

    As the pivotal election of 1866 approached, political violence flared across Missouri. Much of it was associated with Archie Clement, who harassed the Republican authorities who governed Missouri. On election day in November 1866, Clement led a group of some 100 former bushwhackers into the town of Lexington. Their gunfire and intimidation led to the defeat of the Republican Party in the election. In response, Governor Thomas C. Fletcher dispatched a platoon of state militia, led by Major Bacon Montgomery. Clement withdrew, only to return on December 13, 1866. Seeking to avoid a major battle in the center of town, Montgomery allowed Archie Clement to enroll his men in the state militia (as a joke, it seems); after the bushwhackers left, Clement went to the bar of the City Hotel for a drink.
    Seeing his opportunity, Montgomery dispatched a few men to apprehend Clement, who was wanted on a warrant for the Liberty robbery. The major's men found Little Arch drinking with an old friend and called out for him to surrender. Clement drew his revolvers and a wild gunfight ensued. Despite having sustained a gunshot wound to the chest, Archie managed to make it outside and onto his horse. Clement rode up the town's main street in an effort to escape only to be shot off his horse by a militia detachment stationed at the courthouse. Montgomery and his men approached the fallen bushwhacker, who, though mortally wounded, was trying to cock his revolver with his teeth. One of the soldiers asked, "Arch, you are dying. What do you want me to do with you?" Clement replied, "I've done what I always said I would do ... die before I'd surrender." Major Montgomery himself later stated of Clement's final moments, "I've never met better 'grit' on the face of the earth."[7]
    After Arch Clement's death, his organization continued to rob and be pursued by government troops. Out of this group rose Jesse James, who first achieved notoriety three years later.



    JOHNSON COUNTY BUSINESS DIRECTORIES 1881
    Gleaned from:
    The History of Johnson Co., Mo. 1881
    Kansas City Historical Co.
    
    KINGSVILLE TOWNSHIP
    
    Blackburn, Elisha, Blacksmith
    Blackburn, Fannie, Teacher
    Carpenter, W. H., Physician
    Douthit, Dora, Teacher
    Douthit, Molly, Teacher
    Dunn, L. H., Engineer
    Franch, A. G. & Bro., General Merchandise & Druggists
    Glasse, Jacob, Carpenter & Builder
    Glasse, Laura, Teacher
    Gloyd, Ira, Proprietor, Ellas House
    Greave & Ruff, Proprietors, Flour Mill
    Jones, John L., Justice of the Peace
    King, Edgar, General Merchandise
    Ligfried, John H., Shoe & Boot Maker
    Mayo, W. H., Wagon Maker
    McKnight & Lampkin, Grain Dealers
    Miller, B. F., Carpenter & Builder
    Miller, Mrs. Fannie, Proprietor, Miller House
    Mills, S. W., Blacksmith
    Monroe & Son, Groceries & Hardware
    Monroe, G., Postmaster
    Phillips, H. E., Railroad Agent
    Reed, T. A., Physician
    Starkey & Christian, Lumber Dealers
    Stevenson, Wm., U. P. Minister
    Valentine, G. G., Book-keeper
    West, F. M., Baptist Minister
    Wilson, Jas. M., Miller
    Wilson, M. H., Organist
    Wilson, Mrs. Rebecca, Music Teacher
    Woods Bros., Carpenters

     KINGSVILLE CEMETERY
     from the Fall 2012 Johnson County Missouri Historical Society BBulletin.

     Leona Hobbs sent us the histories of two cemeteries recently and said that though she had gleaned most of the information from other sources that she was glad to share. Thanks Leona!
    The vast expanse of territory purchased from the French in the early 19th century embraced the tiny spot upon which the village of Kingsville was to rise within a few decades. In the spring of 1804 when Congress of the United States saw it advisable to divide the territory, this spot became a part of the “District of Louisiana” as divided from the “Territory of Orleans.”
    Void of settlement, untouched except by the Indians and the wild creatures of the forest, the small stretch of land became a part of the state of Missouri. Ultimately, in 1821, it came into the Union as a representative unit of that state. The township, which derived its name from the village of Kingsville situated on the Missouri Pacific Railroad, was originally part of two townships, Madison claimed the southern half and Jackson the northern half. On May 1870,
    the boundaries of Kingsville Township were defined as being bounded on the north by Jackson Township, on the east by Madison Township, on the south by Rose Hill Township, on the west by Cass County line. Chair Knob, with somewhat less elevation than Centre Knob, lies approximately 200 yards north of the City of Kingsville. It was on Chair Knob that General William King, the father of the King family in Kingsville, laid out a family cemetery in 1856
    after the loss of a child. The original King Cemetery contained approximately two acres and was surrounded by a stone wall and planted with crab apple shrubs. It was to be a home on the south side of Chair Knob when Philip Isley and Nancy King returned after being married in 1864. Because Philip was in the Confederate Army, he and Nancy were married on
    horseback, with their pistols strapped in place, on Boat Mountain, in Arkansas. Eventually the Peoples Public Cemetery was added north of the King Cemetery and then a Catholic Cemetery “Mount Olivet” to the west. Both have since been enlarged and now comprise about 15 acres. On the south slope of Chair Knob, and built upon the foundation of the Isley residence was the home of the Elmer Moody family. General William King was buried in the cemetery July 26, 1870. The property for “Mount Olivet” was purchased and first used for a cemetery in 1881.
    Stahl Specialty is located just south of the cemetery, which has buildings on both the north and south sides of Missouri Pacific Railroad.
    Those serving on the Cemetery Board in 2012 are President-Gene McCloud, Vice President-Bob Shull, Secretary-Lorraine McCloud, Treasurer-Leona Hobbs. Others on the board are Herb Brockhaus, E.L.”Pete” Montgomery, George Connell and Michelle Connell.

     Johnson County Historical Society
    302 North Main Street
    Warrensburg, MO 64093
    Hours: 1-4 p.m. Monday—Friday or by appointment
    Phone (660) 747-6480
    Website www.jocomohistory.org
    Please friend us on Facebook for current updates!

    Archibald Clement (Arch or Little Archie)

    At age 17 became William ("Bloody Bill") Anderson's lieutenant. It is said that in one short year Clement eclipsed the record of every known guerrilla by killing 54 men. He was part of Quantrill's famous raid on Lawrence, Kansas, August 21, 1863, and a major player in the Centralia, Missouri, massacre. After the Civil War he took up robbing banks until he was killed December 13, 1866, in Lexington, Missouri, at age 19.

    jocomohistory fall 2012


    Leona Hobbs sent us the histories of two cemeteries recently and said that though she had gleaned most of the
    information from other sources that she was glad to share. Thanks Leona!
    The vast expanse of territory purchased from the
    French in the early 19th century embraced the tiny spot
    upon which the village of Kingsville was to rise within a
    few decades. In the spring of 1804 when Congress of the
    United States saw it advisable to divide the
    territory, this spot became a part of the “District of
    Louisiana” as divided from the “Territory of Orleans.”
    Void of settlement, untouched except by the
    Indians and the wild creatures of the forest, the small
    stretch of land became a part of the state of Missouri.
    Ultimately, in 1821, it came into the Union as a representative unit of that state.
    The township, which derived its name from the village of Kingsville situated on the Missouri Pacific Railroad, was
    originally part of two townships, Madison claimed the southern half and Jackson the northern half. On May 1870,
    the boundaries of Kingsville Township were defined as being bounded on the north by Jackson Township, on the east
    by Madison Township, on the south by Rose Hill Township, on the west by Cass County line. Chair Knob, with
    somewhat less elevation than Centre Knob, lies approximately 200 yards north of the City of Kingsville. It was on
    Chair Knob that General William King, the father of the King family in Kingsville, laid out a family cemetery in 1856
    after the loss of a child.
    The original King Cemetery contained approximately two acres and was surrounded by a stone wall and planted
    with crab apple shrubs. It was to be a home on the south side of Chair Knob when Philip Isley and Nancy King
    returned after being married in 1864. Because Philip was in the Confederate Army, he and Nancy were married on
    horseback, with their pistols strapped in place, on Boat Mountain, in Arkansas. Eventually the Peoples Public
    Cemetery was added north of the King Cemetery and then a Catholic Cemetery “Mount Olivet” to the west. Both
    have since been enlarged and now comprise about 15 acres. On the south slope of Chair Knob, and built upon the
    foundation of the Isley residence was the home of the Elmer Moody family. General William King was buried in the
    cemetery July 26, 1870. The property for “Mount Olivet” was purchased and first used for a cemetery in 1881.
    Stahl Specialty is located just south of the cemetery, which has buildings on both the north and south sides of
    Missouri Pacific Railroad.
    Those serving on the Cemetery Board in 2012 are President-Gene McCloud, Vice President-Bob Shull, Secretary-
    Lorraine McCloud, Treasurer-Leona Hobbs.


    The War on Terror, 1865
    The Civil War in Missouri and the Rise of Jesse James

    An Essay by T.J. Stiles


    The essay that follows was delivered as the annual James Neal Primm Lecture at the St. Louis Mercantile Library on September 11, 2006.

    Call them scenes from an insurgency. A man answers a knock at the door and is riddled with bullets. A platoon of soldiers storm a farm and torture the head of the household for information. Several guerrillas stop at another farm; when they get food and supplies, they reveal themselves to be soldiers in disguise, and arrest the inhabitants. Some troops stop a civilian on the road and ask his allegiance; when he says it’s to the government, they reveal themselves to be insurgents in disguise, and murder him.

    These are all examples from the guerrilla conflict in Missouri during the Civil War. It’s hard to miss the resemblance between these scenes and those in Iraq today. I don’t believe in drawing simple lessons or parallels from the past, but as I try to explain Missouri’s guerrilla conflict and the resulting postwar banditry, I have to acknowledge the resonances with the Iraq war and fight against Islamic terrorism. Does a better understanding of what happened a century and a half ago help us understand what is happening today? Well, we can only hope. The questions we must ask, if not the answers, are certainly much the same.

    Making allowances for an earlier era and smaller population, the devastation of the guerrilla war in Civil War Missouri is certainly comparable to Iraq today. Confederate insurgents shot or burned out noncombatants purely for their political beliefs. Union forces engaged in torture and summary execution. With martial law in force for the entire conflict, the Union army carried out more trials of civilians by military commission in Missouri than in all eleven Confederate states combined. By war’s end, about 300,000 people—roughly one-third of the state’s prewar population—were missing. They had either died, been driven out, or fled to a safer place.

    When I started my biography of Jesse James, I knew this context was the key to explaining him. What I didn’t know was just how poorly that context had been understood, even by historians. I had to ask fundamental questions: How did a robust political system collapse so catastrophically? How did civil society disintegrate into such violence? How did the military try fight an entrenched insurgency? What was the legacy of the conflict in the years that followed?

    To answer those questions, let’s focus on one community, the place I know best: Clay County, Missouri.

    Part I. Polarization: 1854 to 1860

    Clay County was not typical of Missouri, but it was typical of the places where the insurgency flourished. Slavery was concentrated in the counties that lined the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers; though slaves were only ten percent of the population of Missouri as a whole, they were 25 percent of Clay. Those slaves comprised much of the county’s wealth; they were also integrated into a commercial economy that included small farms; rope factories and tobacco warehouses; banks, mercantile establishments, and the like. Slavery, agricultural products, business relationships, and family ties gave Clay County a connection to the South.


    Missouri River

    Take, for example, the Reverend Robert James, the father of Frank and Jesse. He and his wife Zerelda moved to northern Clay County from Kentucky. A popular Baptist preacher, he acquired a half dozen slaves, most of them children. When two preachers tried to bring the county’s Baptists into the antislavery Northern Convention, Robert James successfully opposed them.

    Robert and Zerelda’s southerness extended to business. He grew hemp, used to make rope, much of it sold to the South for binding cotton bales. When he died in California during the gold rush, Zerelda eventually remarried to a doctor, Reuben Samuel, who moved onto the farm and raised tobacco, another commercial crop. Reuben and Zerelda purchased more slaves, eventually owning a total of seven. In politics, they identified with the “fire-eaters,” Southern politicians who demanded that new territories be opened to slavery.

    In Liberty, the county seat, three other men took a different view of things. One was Edward M. Samuel, an enterprising merchant who sold supplies to wagon trains bound for Oregon and California. Two others were brothers, James and O. P. Moss, who were prominent members of the Whig party.

    All three came from Southern families, owned slaves at various times, and had a big stake in keeping things as they were. Like nearly all Missourians, apart from German immigrants, they loathed abolitionists, and approved of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The act repealed the Missouri Compromise by allowing settlers in the Kansas and Nebraska territories to vote on the question of slavery there. Edward Samuel and the Mosses saw slavery as a positive good. As the Tribune, Liberty’s middle-of-the-road newspaper, editorialized, “Where there is no legal sanction of slavery the masses, the laboring portion of the people, are oppressed and run over.”

    But Samuel and the Moss brothers grew uneasy when fighting broke out between proslavery “border ruffians” from Missouri and free-soil “Jayhawkers” in Kansas. The border ruffians established camps in Clay County, and they seized the small federal arsenal in Liberty. Samuel and the Mosses disliked their violence and intimidation—and their talk about secession, should Kansas become a free state. When the Whig party collapsed, the three men organized the Know-Nothing Party in Clay. The central issue for the ex-Whig Know-Nothings of Missouri was support for the Union.

    Samuel and the Mosses grew downright alarmed when the border ruffians began to attack their opponents inside Missouri. In early 1855, border ruffians ran a Christian minister out of the town of Weston, under suspicion of insufficient enthusiasm for slavery. When the editor of the Parkville Industrial Luminary defended the right of the settlers of Kansas to vote against slavery, a mob destroyed his presses. The fire-eaters in Liberty held a mass meeting in support of the attack. They passed a resolution that declared, “We will begin at home, and rid ourselves of the traitors harbored in our midst.”

    The Whigs turned Know-Nothings drew a line against this extremism. They saw that such polarization in politics, both nationwide and locally, was destroying the system itself. As a statewide leader declared, they were “ready to resist illegal Northern aggression and abolitionism on the one hand, and to suppress the Southern fanaticism and nullification on the other.” That wasn’t hardline enough for the border ruffian movement. In June 1856, a mob in clay County attacked Darius Sessions, a Know-Nothing leader, who was saved from lynching by several neighbors.

    Five years before the Civil War, Clay County was already the scene of political violence—not over the question of slavery or abolition, but over how far they should go in order to defend slavery, and extend it to new territories.

    Part II. Militarization: 1861

    When Lincoln was elected in 1860, a chain reaction of secession began, starting with South Carolina on December 20. In Clay County, voters swung back and forth. On December 24, the secessionists organized an armed unit of “minute men.” On January 28, 1861, the unconditional Union men held a rally at the county courthouse. On February 1, the secessionists organized a “Southern Rights” meeting; James H. Moss showed up, spoke eloquently for the Union, and changed the crowd’s mind. When a special election was held for a state convention on secession, the county elected Moss and a pro-Union ticket.

    Then came Fort Sumter, and Lincoln’s call to put down the rebellion. Old border ruffians seized the federal arsenal in Liberty on April 20. The eighteen-year-old Frank James joined one of the many secessionist companies that formed in the Missouri River counties, in order to fight under General Sterling Price. Frank was serving under Price when he defeated federal forces at Wilson’s Creek on August 10, and afterward marched north to besiege Lexington. Rebel enthusiasm swept Clay County. “At the start of the rebellion,” one Unionist observed, “the people of Clay were a unit for the Union, but in the fall and winter of 1861 . . . it was quite the other way.”

    Now that the secessionists were on top, they turned against their enemies. “There were organized bands in the county at that time,” O.P. Moss testified two years later. “We received information that the two Mosses, [James M.] Jones, and [Edward M.] Samuel must be got out of the way.” As these men put it, they were “persecuted and driven from our county,” as their property was seized to support General Price’s army. In neighboring counties, local Unionists organized their own units; skirmishes erupted between self-organized gangs of armed men.

    The longstanding orthodoxy about the Civil War in Missouri overlooks all this. Historian Richard Brownlee wrote that “the most direct factor” leading to violence in the state “lay in the abuses visited upon the civil population of Missouri by the Union military forces.” William Parrish claimed that invading federal troops from other states “found it impossible to think of Missourians as anything other than . . . natural enemies.” But the violence started when Union troops were far away, and it was largely between Missourians.

    For most of 1861, federal units in the state were concentrated to fight Price’s army, and had little contact with most communities. Union troops marched through Clay County only three times during the entire year, and stayed no more than three or four days. And Union officers hardly saw all Missourians as disloyal. General Ulysses S. Grant vividly remembered Jefferson City in the summer of 1861, describing a town “filled with Union fugitives who had been driven by guerrilla bands to take refuge with the national troops. They were in a deplorable condition. . . . Their worldly goods were abandoned and appropriated by their former neighbors.”

    Outsiders didn’t start the breakdown of Missouri society; Missourians did. Kansas Jayhawkers did cause terrible suffering with plundering raids, but they were not the causal factor—neither the kindling nor the match—for the strife that erupted in 1861. I can do no better than to quote a man from the western border, who described the turmoil for a committee of the legislature. “The germ lies in the troubles of 1855, relating to Kansas,” said John R. Carter. “The original Union men in that region were opposed in the older day to the raids that were made into Kansas,” and so they “engendered a bitter hatred against themselves from the strong pro-slavery party.”

    Part III. Pacification: 1862

    General Price captured Lexington, but he couldn’t hold it. On February 12, 1862, he was forced out of the state entirely. He left behind an ailing Private Frank James, who surrendered and was allowed to go home in early 1862.

    Union army commanders and provisional state government now turned to the pacification of the countryside. Columns of soldiers were put on the march, driving rebel partisans into hiding. At the same time, the provisional state government began to organize militia forces to keep order, and free up standard federal troops (the U.S. Volunteers) for the main battlefront. The most important was the MSM, or Missouri State Militia, an organization of about 10,000 full-time soldiers, armed and organized like the U.S. cavalry. The MSM established garrisons in rebel-controlled towns—but not until March 15, 1862, nearly a year after the start of the war, did it arrive in Liberty. James and O.P. Moss, along with Edward M. Samuel, could finally return home.

    The MSM’s Fifth Cavalry Regiment, under Colonel William R. Penick, now enforced martial law in Clay County. Colonel Penick found, however, that the very success of Union forces simply put in motion an evolutionary process, a survival of the fittest. The smarter and tougher insurgents held together, and organized smaller, more nimble, more lethal guerrilla units.

    The most famous of these survivors is still a familiar name. As a school girl in Clay County wrote in a letter, “There is a man by the name of Quantrill, who is fighting the Feds on his own hook. [He] is giving the Feds some trouble.” Riding fast horses and carrying multiple six-shot revolvers, he and his men staged hit-and-run attacks on Union forces in Jackson County. As early as February 3, 1862, a Union officer in Independence wrote of him as “the notorious Quantrill. . . . I have seen this infamous scoundrel rob mails, steal the coaches and horses, and commit other similar outrages upon society even within sight of this city. Mounted on the best horses in the country, he has defied pursuit. . . . I hear of him tonight fifteen miles from here, with new recruits, committing outrages on Union men, a large body of whom have come in tonight, driven out by him.”

    Note the attacks on civilians. This was a hallmark of the conflict from the very beginning, and it would only grow worse.

    But for all of the attention given to Quantrill, he was only one of many “bushwhackers,” as the Confederate guerrillas were called, and he operated mostly in Jackson County. Other insurgents stalked the state from end to end. Fighting them was frustrating. In Clay County, Colonel Penick took increasingly severe measures that fell mostly on civilians. “The Feds condescended to pay us a visit,” wrote a neighbor of Jesse James’s family, “though they were uninvited and unwelcome. They got in and were over half of the house before we knew they were on the place. They turned beds upside down, searched drawers and trunks, and jawed and disputed around considerably.” One day Penick and his troops stopped at a house and interrogated three men, who, he wrote, “denied having any knowledge of any camp or gathering of armed men.” A short distance away, the troops ran into a guerrilla outfit. “After the skirmish was over,” Penick reported, “I sent two of these men out . . . and had them shot.”

    Such harsh measures appeared to be a military necessity. But guerrilla warfare is as much political and psychological as military. Colonel Penick thought only of the insurgents and their supporters; but his heavy-handed tactics often victimized neutral or even friendly civilians, turning some into opponents. Even Edward M. Samuel thought Penick was “very rigid,” and often spoke up for arrested neighbors.

    Part IV. Radicalization: 1863

    The state government organized an additional militia force, the Enrolled Missouri Militia, or EMM. It consisted of part-timers, local men who were to assume the lighter duties from the MSM and U.S. volunteers. None other than James H. Moss organized the EMM in Clay County, which replaced Penick’s MSM regiment.

    The idea behind the EMM seems obvious: Put local security in the hands of men who know the community. The problem with it was threefold: First, the most highly motivated men had already joined the U.S. army or MSM. Second, the EMM recruits were untrained, underequipped, and unpaid. Third, the new force consisted of Unionists who had been feuding with their neighbors; there was a lot of bad blood. Now they were instructed to “subsist on the rebels, their aiders, and abettors”— essentially an order to loot the neighborhood.

    The bad blood bled both ways. James H. Moss (now Colonel Moss) picked as his company commanders men known to be conservatives, former Whigs who were pillars of the community—but war was war. Captain Anthony Harsel, for example, owned at least sixteen slaves; but rebels called him as an abolitionist and burned his house down. Civilians refused to help the militia. “Many [local women] have told me that they, the bushwhackers, had as much right there as I, with my company,” reported Captain William Garth.

    The EMM in Clay County became increasingly embittered. As a result, Edward Samuel explained, “they were becoming more radically Union.” Some militiamen started to think that slavery should be abolished. As Samuel put it, he himself was “an Unconditional Union man, even radically so, if necessary to put down this rebellion.”

    That kind of talk infuriated Colonel Moss. He had no intention of destroying the old society in order to save it. “It is a common report here,” wrote a militia officer on February 14, 1863, “that Col. Moss of Clay County uses the Enrolled Militia of said county to prevent the escape of negroes.” I discovered one case of the militia whipping a rebellious slave, even though his owner was a secessionist.

    But Colonel Moss’s day was passing. The state government organized a smaller and meaner version of the EMM—the Provisional EMM—with men noted for their hardline attitudes. In April, Colonel Moss was put on the shelf, and security for the county was taken over by the Provisionals.

    On the other side, another family was radicalizing as well. In the spring of 1863, Frank James joined a guerrilla band led by Fernando Scott, a saddler from Liberty. On May 19, Frank took part in an ambush in which the guerrillas killed their prisoners, including Darius Sessions, a prewar Know-Nothing leader. The bushwhackers raided through Clinton and Clay counties before going to ground on the farm of Zerelda and Rueben Samuel, Frank’s mother and stepfather. Along the way, they encountered two civilians who reported their presence to the militia headquarters in Liberty. The tip proved crucial.

    On May 25, 1863, the Provisional EMM stormed onto the Samuel farm. They roughed up Jesse, just fifteen years old, and demanded that Reuben Samuel tell them where the guerrillas were camped. He said he didn’t know. Lieutenant James H. Rogers reported, “The militia judged him to be speaking falsely, and at once procured a rope, placed it about his neck, and gave him one good swing.” When Reuben came down, choking and terrified, he cracked. He led the militia to his stepson’s encampment in the woods. Fernando Scott lost several men in the firefight that followed, though he and Frank James both escaped across the Missouri River in the aftermath.

    Reuben and Zerelda Samuel now fell into the maze of martial law in Missouri. They both were arrested, held for some days, and eventually released on parole. The timid Reuben was ordered to report to the provost marshal’s office in St. Joseph every twenty days. Desperate to get out from under this requirement, he asked three neighbors to write a letter on his behalf. “We regard him as a peaceable, quiet, inoffensive man, who would harm no one,” they wrote. “He is, we hesitate not to state, under the control of his wife & stepson, and is really afraid to act contrary to their wishes in anything. This fear, we believe, caused him to make a false statement he would not otherwise have done. We know of no man who is more peaceably inclined and who is more inoffensive.” The letter was endorsed by Edward M. Samuel, who acted as an advisor to the assistant provost marshal for Clay County.

    Poor Reuben. Caught between martial law and a militant wife and stepsons, he simply wanted to be left alone. In that way, he was much like a great, silent mass of Missourians. But Zerelda, Frank, and Jesse became ever more radical rebels. Such national events as the Emancipation Proclamation and the Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg only made them more bitter. Then, on the night of August 13, most of the remaining slaves on the farm probably joined a well-coordinated mass escape, called a “general stampede,” that emptied much of Clay County. On August 21, Frank followed Quantrill in the destruction of the Kansas town of Lawrence, the headquarters of the abolitionist Jayhawkers. The bushwhackers murdered more than 200 men and boys in cold blood, and burned down the town. Zerelda’s response was to name her newborn daughter Fannie Quantrell Samuel, “just to have a Quantrell in the family,” as she later put it.

    The Union military commander in Kansas City, General Thomas Ewing, Jr., responded with General Order No. 11. As Mao later put it, the guerrilla is a fish that swims in the sea of civilian supporters, so Ewing decided to drain the sea. He ordered virtually everyone living in Quantrill’s theater of operations—Jackson, Cass, Bates, and the northern half of Vernon counties—to leave. “There is hundreds of people leaving their homes from this country,” wrote a colonel in the MSM, “and God knows what is to become of them. . . . It is heart sickening to see what I have seen since I have been back here. A desolate country and women & children some of them almost naked. Some on foot and some in old wagons. Oh God what a sight to see in this once happy and peaceable country.” The region was so thoroughly destroyed by Union troops that it became known as the Burnt District.

    The cycle of radicalization had become unstoppable.

    Part V. Eradication: 1863 to 1864

    Colonel James H. Moss was determined to stop the cycle. He convinced Governor Hamilton Gamble, a fellow former Whig, to give him control again of Clay County, to protect it from retaliation by angry Kansans. Indeed, raids from Kansas by “Red Legs”—ideological Jayhawkers or just plain bandits—had been a big problem for Western Missouri. But Moss’s main concern was the radicalization of the militia. He wrote to Alexander Doniphan, “When I reached home I found that the entire military force . . . was nothing more or less than an armed mob. My arrival was like the falling of a thunder bolt in their midst.”

    In a public speech, Moss denounced the radicals, and he dismissed antislavery officers. He refused to hand over prisoners to the provost marshal, and he even enlisted former Confederate soldiers, the better to fight Red Legs. All this upset local Unionists, including O.P. Moss. “I remarked to my brother that we were running considerable risk in putting arms into the hands of such men indiscriminately.” The Colonel dismissed the argument, saying, “The war was far down South.”

    Unionists soon began to complain about Moss’s force, dubbing it the Paw-Paw Militia, after the plants that filled the creek bottoms where the guerrillas hid. When Red Legs raided Clay County, the Paw-Paws put up a good fight; when the bushwhackers showed up, the Paw-Paws disappeared—or defected.

    Those guerrillas showed up in force in early 1864. After spending the winter with Confederate forces in Texas, Frank James and his comrades returned in the spring. Frank now followed Fletch Taylor, who led his band into Clay County. There 16-year-old Jesse James joined the ranks.

    Jesse’s introduction to guerrilla warfare was stark. Taylor used his gang as a death squad, going house to house to murder Unionist farmers. Jesse’s first skirmish with Union forces came weeks later, when Taylor ambushed a pursuing column led by Captain William B. Kemper, an MSM officer sent to replace Colonel Moss and his disloyal Paw-Paws.

    After the ambush, Fletch Taylor sent a letter to the Liberty Tribune, explaining his approach. “I am going to stay here until the Radicals all leave this county,” he wrote. He excused his attacks on civilians by accusing Captain Kemper of doing the same thing. “I will carry war on as you carry it on. You can’t drive me out of this county. . . . If I find that you are warring on the citizens, so be it; I will retaliate—if you fight me alone, I will return the compliment.”

    Taylor largely succeeded in eradicating the Unionists. “A general terror prevails,” one man wrote. “Today there is not in the county of Clay one unconditional loyal Union man who dares to go into the harvest field to do a day’s work. Many of them have left the State; all are now talking of going.”

    Taylor, however, lost his right arm to a shotgun blast. So, around the start of August 1864, the James boys joined up with William T. Anderson, better known as “Bloody Bill.” Anderson moved into Clay County, making Zerelda Samuel’s farm his base, and picked up where Taylor left off.

    With Colonel Moss now out of the way, the Union command once again targeted rebel civilians, including Zerelda Samuel and her frightened husband. Reuben asked Edward M. Samuel to intervene with the provost marshal. He wanted a pass to go to Indiana. This time, however, Edward wouldn’t help. “I told him, very bluntly and plainly, that it was his duty to help the military authorities in finding out his stepsons, and in bringing them to justice,” Edward reported. He mocked Reuben as “an easy, good natured, good for nothing fellow” who was “completely under the control of his wife.”

    The Union command had tried any number of counter-insurgency tactics in Clay: They had planted garrisons, dispatched patrols, searched for bushwhacker camps; arrested rebel sympathizers; placed ambushes of their own. Nothing worked. They now saw only one solution: to empty the land of the insurgency’s supporters. The military drew up a plan to banish Clay County’s leading secessionist families—and at the top of the list were Zerelda and her weak-kneed husband. One colonel called them “the most disloyal of that disloyal locality.”

    The plan was help up by a bureaucratic glitch. The provost marshal headquarters in St. Louis wanted a more detailed report before issuing the orders. As the fighting heated up in the fall of 1864, the local officers never got around to it.

    But the Samuels would not escape vengeance forever.

    Part VI. Mutilation: 1864

    The Missouri bushwhackers had a weakness that was also their strength. They were organic, self-organized guerrillas; they had no connection to the Confederate chain of command. That meant they had no overall strategy, no statewide coordination, which was a serious problem. The successful insurgencies in history have had a guiding hand—a George Washington, a Ho Chi Minh—but no one, not even Quantrill, ever filled that role in Missouri. As much trouble as the bushwhackers caused, they never came close to breaking the Union grip on the state. On the other hand, decentralization also made it nearly impossible to wipe them out. Killing off one band of guerrillas made no difference to the others; and each leader who died was simply replaced by another.

    Both that weakness and that strength diminished in late 1864. General Price finally returned to Missouri, leading an army of invasion. The guerrillas rode to join him, convinced that the Confederate liberation had finally begun. By combining with a conventional army, however, they made themselves vulnerable to a decisive blow by Union forces. As Price’s army was eviscerated in October 1864, so were the bushwhackers who rode with him.

    The exception to that story is “Bloody Bill” Anderson. Price welcomed him at a ceremony, mid-invasion, but then ordered him to go off in the opposite direction. “Bloody Bill” had become too bloody for comfort. On September 25, he had led his followers, including Jesse and Frank James, into the town of Centralia; as they were looting the town, they stopped a train and pulled out 22 unarmed Union soldiers. They gunned them down in cold blood, then mutilated their bodies. Afterward they lured a pursuing force into an ambush; they killed every man who tried to surrender, and engaged in further dismemberment of the dead.

    Jesse’s special mentor in “Bloody Bill’s” band was Archie Clement. Clement became known as Anderson’s “scalper and head devil.” He popularized the custom of scalping the dead, and displaying the bloody trophies from their saddles and bridles. Cutting off heads and genitals was another hobby that became increasingly common.

    Massacres and mutilation are hardly unknown in American history, but they usually occurred across lines of race and ethnicity. Whites often butchered blacks, and atrocities by both sides in wars with Native Americans were extremely common. But in Missouri, white Protestant men slaughtered and carved up white Protestant men—men from the same state, often from the same communities.

    Why? The answer is in part sociological. A military institutional culture was nonexistent on the bushwhacker side, and very weak on the militia side. Units from both sides operated with great independence. In this environment, the process of violentization—the social pressure to become hyper violent—became unstoppable. And the answer is in part biological. The participants were almost all young men, often teenagers, at an age when the parts of the brain that control judgment are not yet fully developed. And the answer is in part ideological. The people of Missouri had been on the front lines of the long political battle leading up to the war. This was a highly political age, and the politics had progressively become more and more polarized, the positions more and more extreme, more and more uncompromising. When the shooting finally started, they were primed for the worst. Once the worst began, a self-feeding cycle kept carrying it to new levels of horror.

    In October, a skillful militia commander named Samuel Cox used Anderson’s favorite tactic, the decoy, the lure “Bloody Bill” into an ambush. Cox and his men shot “Bloody Bill” off his horse, which was decorated with human scalps. Jesse and Frank James returned to Clay County, where they went from house to house, murdering the remaining Unionists. Then they fled to Texas.

    Meanwhile, Captain William Kemper returned to the task of collecting evidence in order to exile the county’s leading secessionists. He singled out the worst of the worst: Zerelda Samuel and her brood. He wrote in his official report to St. Louis:

    "Of Reubin Samuel & family. Samuel lives in Clay County. I regard his wife as being one of the worst women in this State. She has two sons in the brush now & have been for 10 months. They have engaged in the murder of a number of citizens of this county. They were with Bill Anderson and assisted in the murdering of 22 unarmed federal soldiers at Centralia Mo some time in the month of Sept last. I heard her asked the question a few days since, if she was not ashamed of her sons—the way they were acting & she rejoined that she was not—that she was proud of them—that she prayed to God to protect them in their work. . . . It is not through anything personal that is existing between these parties & myself that I speak thus. . . . I feel today that I am almost as much in ‘rebellion’ here in this county as I would be in South Carolina."

    On January 29, 1865, Reuben and Zerelda Samuel were ordered to take their children and leave the state. They settled in Nebraska, just across the river from Missouri.

    Part VII. Purification: 1865-66

    The order to exile the Samuel family was personally approved by the Union commander in Missouri, General Grenville M. Dodge. On January 16, 1865, Dodge explained his policies to President Lincoln in an eight-page letter. His strategy was to concentrate on “the Missouri River Counties,” he wrote. “No loyal people can live there.” He wanted to exile secessionists, and give control to “local loyal organizations,” which, he explained, “I consider the best troops to keep these outlaws under.”

    Missourians would have to solve their own problems, and solve them by force. As one militia general urged three months later, “Organize! Organize! All volunteer troops are being withdrawn from North Missouri; martial law will soon be abrogated, civil law will be supreme. Spencer rifles must aid in the good work.” But handing off security to local forces may have aggravated the divisions within Missouri.

    The war had divided Unionists into two camps, the Radicals and Conservatives, and it was the most hardline Radicals who now took charge along the Missouri River. They were determined to banish the rebels and overturn the old society. General Dodge alluded to this in his letter to Lincoln. Don’t worry about the exodus of secessionists from these counties, he told the President. “They do not leave on account of depredations committed upon them by the troops, but through fear of the action of the state convention.”

    That convention was elected in 1864 to rewrite Missouri’s constitution. This Radical-controlled body embarked on a revolution. It enacted immediate emancipation, freeing thousands of slaves still held in Missouri. It also tried to bar Confederates from public life forever. It required an “Iron-Clad Oath” of each voter, a sworn declaration that he had not committed any of 86 rebellious acts, including simply expressing sympathy for an individual Confederate. It barred all but strong Unionists from any public position, including corporate offices, the profession of law, teaching, even preaching the gospel. To top it off, the convention empowered the governor to appoint new officials for almost every public office, down to the county level. The purification of Missouri had begun.

    The problem was, the bushwhackers were still around. Even as General Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, Jesse James was riding behind back from Texas behind Archie Clement, killing and plundering. On May 11, Clement demanded the surrender of the town of Lexington! Four days later, he and Jesse James ran into a patrol of Wisconsin cavalry; Jesse was shot through the lung. Tellingly, it was the only well-established incident in which he exchanged fire with troops from a state other than Missouri, and it was four weeks after the war officially ended. The badly wounded Jesse was carried into the town of Lexington, where he surrendered and was paroled.

    The war may have ended, but the bitterness did not. Ol Shepherd, a bushwhacker friend of the James brothers, negotiated the surrender of his men and himself on May 25. “We must keep our side arms,” he wrote, “for you know we have personal enemies that would kill us at the first opportunity.” As late as June 15, 1866, a wild gunfight erupted just a few miles north of Zerelda Samuel’s farm between a former bushwhacker and one of his wartime victims. In October 1866, a year and a half after the war ended, army Lieutenant James Burbank was sent to investigate reports of “an armed pistol company” in western Missouri. The search was fruitless, he reported. “Nearly every man I saw during my stay in these counties carried army revolvers, even men at work in the fields, and boys riding about town.” It was “a habit which grew out of the unsettled condition of the country since the war.”

    The Unionists, meanwhile, were fighting each other. Men such as James H. Moss and his brother were Conservatives—who became the Democratic party in the state. They wanted to reintegrate the former rebels as quickly as possible, and put things back as they were as closely as possible. Men such as Edward M. Samuel were Radicals—who became the Republican party in the state. They saw the Confederates as traitors, and wanted to keep them out of politics, and preferably out of Missouri. A Radical committee in Clinton County, neighboring Clay, announced: “We advise them not to make their abode with us, and if they do so, they do it at their peril.” The Radicals were suspicious of the Conservatives for their friendliness toward the former Confederates, which justified, in their minds, any and all means to defeat them at the ballot box.

    Across the state, Republicans (I’m using Radical and Republican interchangeably now) replaced county officials who represented the old society. The Republicans even took charge in business. Back in 1861, many rural banks had lent heavily to equip secessionist forces, counting on reimbursement by the Confederate government. When the Union prevailed, they went bankrupt. The Liberty branch of the failed Farmer’s Bank was purchased by the leading Republicans of the county, including Edward M. Samuel and James Love, who had risen to prominence as a Radical during the war. They renamed it the Clay County Savings Association.

    On January 29, the Republicans of Liberty, a party created by the war, held the party’s first mass meeting ever in Clay County. Their leaders were mostly former militia officers—also happened to be the chief officers of the Clay County Savings Association. Two weeks later, a group of former bushwhackers selected that bank for the nation’s first armed, daylight bank robbery in peacetime. The chief suspect was Archie Clement, the heir to “Bloody Bill” Anderson and the mentor to Jesse James.

    The robbery marked the start of a year-long campaign of crime and intimidation by Clement’s band. They robbed at least two, perhaps three more banks (all owned by Unionists). They also clashed with the Radicals of Clay and Lafayette counties (Archie Clement’s home), focusing on the voter registration officials who were trying to keep all but Republicans from voting.

    The Republican officials in Clay sent an appeal to the army, declaring, “We deem the lives of Union men in great danger. . . . Several of the most respectable citizens have been ordered to leave and many others have been publicly insulted and their lives threatened.” A Republican newspaper in Kansas City declared, “Clay County, Lafayette county, and Callaway county are today worse, if possible, than they were five years ago.” In much of the state, Radicals intimidated their enemies with their own armed bands; in Archie Clement’s territory, however, they lived in fear.

    On election day, Clement led his men through the streets of Lexington. Firing their revolvers in the air, they forced the Republicans into hiding. The sheriff sent a desperate appeal for help. After some delay, Governor Thomas Fletcher sent in the state militia. They cornered Clement in a saloon, and a wild gunfight erupted as he ran out and mounted his horse. He died in front of the court house, riddled with bullets.

    The death of Archie Clement marked a turning point in the postwar career of the guerrillas. Most of the old bushwhackers in Missouri had returned to peaceful lives, or became isolated criminals. What made Clement unusual is how he kept his group together after the war, and focused much of his violence on political foes. He was a brutal, impulsive robber, but he also hated Radicals. His actions in November 1866 even swung the local election to the Democrats, as he intended.

    In peace, as in war, the bushwhackers knew who their enemy was, but they had no strategy for victory. They simply wanted to inflict pain. But Clement left behind two legacies: First, a model of how the bushwhackers could continue to live the lawless life, by robbing banks; second, an inspiration to avenge the Confederate defeat, by attacking the victors where they could.

    At least one of his followers grasped Clement’s legacy, and his name was Jesse James. He may or may not have been present for the events of 1866; many think his lung wound still kept him out of the saddle, while other reports place him in Lexington on election day. Still, Clement remained an icon to him. When his mother Zerelda had another son, she named him Archie, in Clement’s memory. As late as 1876, Jesse wrote, “Arch Clement, one of the noblest boys, and the most promising military boy of this age, [was] murdered in cold blood [by] Tom Fletcher’s cut-throat militia.”

    Part VIII. Justification: 1869-76

    In the three years after Clement’s death, his old group continued to rob banks, but arrests, gunfights, and local lynch mobs decimated their ranks. Then, in December 1869, Jesse James got his name in the newspapers for the first time by murdering a bank officer he mistakenly believed to be Samuel Cox, the militia commander who had killed “Bloody Bill” Anderson during the war. Indeed, he boasted of the crime as he escaped.

    That murder brought Jesse to the attention of the editor of the Kansas City Times, a former Confederate cavalryman named John Newman Edwards. Over the next five years, Edwards and James worked together, building the former guerrilla into a symbol of the persecution that former Confederates felt. In my book, I suggest that Jesse is best understood as a kind of forerunner of the modern terrorist. I use that comparison carefully; he robbed for the money, and most of the time did not select symbolic targets. But he used violence and notoriety for a political purpose, writing letters to newspapers that attacked the Radicals and echoed Edwards’s editorials.

    The dual image of Jesse James—both martyr and avenger—helped Edwards to reshape Missouri’s historical memory, to convince even Unionist Democrats that it was a Southern state, badly mistreated by the Union (despite the fact that three out of four Missourians who fought in the war fought against the Confederacy.)

    This was the secret of Jesse James’s popularity during his own lifetime—not as a Robin Hood, going after corporate capitalism, but as a Confederate demanding his rights in bitterly divided postwar society. When the rebels were allowed to vote again, Edwards and James helped to create a Confederate identity for the state. On the local level, Jesse James received material support from former Confederates, while the neighbors who cooperated in the attempts to capture him were all former Unionists, some of them former militiamen. On the statewide level, Edwards worked the legislature to aid the outlaws and use their symbolism to help the Confederates win control of the Democratic party. With the collapse of Reconstruction, both U.S. senate seats and much of the legislature were filled with former Confederates.

    The guerrilla war in Missouri had been stopped by a combination of military measures, political resolution, and psychological pressure. During Price’s raid in 1864, many of the bushwhacker leaders were killed, disorganizing the survivors. Then came Lee’s surrender, which removed the political reason for the guerrillas’ existence. The bushwhackers were physically capable of continuing to fight, but the Confederate surrender had a huge psychological impact, at a time when they lacked their old leadership.

    The Radicals, however, bungled the peace. By excluding the rebels from politics, they left them with no outlet for their grievances except violence. On the other hand, they provided the state with no adequate law-enforcement institutions to suppress disorder and resistance. In other words, the victors were both provocative and weak. By keeping his men together, Archie Clement took advantage of these circumstances. His successor, Jesse James, attracted even greater support. Edwards helped establish him as a political avenger. Jesse, meanwhile, carried out daring crimes with near impunity, further feeding his legend.

    The irony is that he outlived his role. After the collapse of Reconstruction in 1876 (and the destruction of his gang at Northfield, Minnesota), he could not stop living the life that his guerrilla childhood had prepared him for. Without a political excuse for his crimes, he rapidly lost support. Governor Thomas T. Crittenden orchestrated a plot that resulted in James’s murder in 1882, not three years after he returned to crime.

    Lucky Jesse. In his cinematic assassination, he was elevated from violent Confederate avenger to kindly populist folk hero. The political context of his crimes drained away from memory, as did the horrors and grassroots divisions that shaped his life, and Missouri history.


    Lexington, Missouri, center of Archie Clement's activities during the election of 1866 and scene of his death



    Fletch Taylor, Frank James, and Jesse James

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