"Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letter, U.S., let him get an eagle on his button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pocket, there is no power on earth that can deny that he has earned the right to citizenship."
Company E, 4th US Colored Troops at Fort Lincoln, November 17th, 1865.
Library of Congress
|22th Regiment U. S. Colored Troops|
|Sgt Major Christian Fleetwood - American Civil War Medal of Honor recipient|
|US Colored Troops Medal|
In the decades that followed the USCT soldiers fought in the Indian Wars in the American West, where they became known as the Buffalo Soldiers; they received the nickname from Native Americans who compared their hair to the fur of bison.
|1st Sgt. Octavius McFarland, Sixty-second U.S. Colored Infantry|
|Pvt. Abram Garvin, 108th U.S. Colored Infantry|
- 5th Massachusetts (Colored) Volunteer Cavalry Regiment
- 54th Massachusetts (Colored) Volunteer Infantry Regiment
- 55th Massachusetts (Colored) Volunteer Infantry Regiment
- 29th Connecticut (Colored) Volunteer Infantry Regiment
- 4 Regiments of Louisiana Native Guards (renamed the 1st-4th Corps d'Afrique Infantry, later made into the 73rd-76th US Colored Infantry on April 4, 1864).
- 1st and 2nd Brigade Marching Bands, Corps d'Afrique (later made into Nos. 1 and 2 Bands, USCT).
- 1 Regiment of Cavalry (1st Corps d'Afrique Cavalry, later made into the 4th US Colored Cavalry).
- 22 Regiments of Infantry (1st-20th, 22nd, and 26th Corps d'Afrique Infantry, later converted into the 77th-79th, 80th-83rd, 84th-88th, and 89th-93rd US Colored Infantry on April 4, 1864).
- 5 Regiments of Engineers (1st-5th Corps d'Afrique Engineers, later converted into the 95th-99th US Colored Infantry regiments on April 4, 1864).
- 1 Regiment of Heavy Artillery (later converted into the 10th US Colored (Heavy) Artillery on May 21, 1864).
chicago history museum: African American Civil War soldier, c. 1863
Right Wing, XVI Corps (1864)
- Detachment, Quartermaster's Department.
- Pioneer Corps, 1st Division (Mower), 16th Army Corps.
- Pioneer Corps, Cavalry Division (Grierson), 16th Army Corps.
- Notes:6 Regiments of Cavalry [1st-6th USC Cavalry]
- 1 Regiment of Light Artillery [2nd USC (Light) Artillery]
- 1 Independent USC (Heavy) Artillery Battery
- 13 Heavy Artillery Regiments [1st and 3rd-14th USC (Heavy) Artillery]
- 1 unassigned Company of Infantry [Company A, US Colored Infantry]
- 1 Independent USC Company of Infantry [ Southard's Independent Company, Pennsylvania (Colored) Infantry ]
- 1 Independent USC Regiment of Infantry [Powell's Regiment, US Colored Infantry]
- 135 Regiments of Infantry [1st-138th USC Infantry] (The 94th, 105th, and 126th USC Infantry regiments were never fully formed)
- The 2nd USC (Light) Artillery Regiment (2nd USCA) was made up of 9 separate batteries grouped into 3 nominal battalions of three batteries each. The batteries were usually detached.
- I Battalion: A,B & C Batteries.
- II Battalion: D, E & F Batteries.
- III Battalion: G, H & I Batteries.
- The second raising of the 11th USC Infantry (USCI) was created by converting the 7th USC (Heavy) Artillery into an infantry unit.
- The second raising of the 79th USC Infantry (USCI) was formed from the 1st Kansas Colored Infantry.
- The second raising of the 83rd USC Infantry (USCI) was formed from the 2nd Kansas Colored Infantry.
- The second raising of the 87th USCI was formed from merging the first raisings of the 87th and 96th USCI.
- The second raising of the 113th USCI was formed by merging the first raisings of the 11th, 112th, and 113th USCI.
- Sergeant William Harvey Carney of the 54th Massachusetts (Colored) Volunteer Infantry was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Battle of Fort Wagner in July 1863. During the advance, Carney was wounded but still went on. When the color-bearer was shot, Carney grabbed the flagstaff and planted it in the parapet, while the rest of his regiment stormed the fortification. When his regiment was forced to retreat, he was wounded two more times while he carried the colors back to Union lines. He did not relinquish it until he handed it to another soldier of the 54th. Carney did not receive his medal until 37 years later.
- 13 African-American soldiers, including Sergeant Major Christian Fleetwood and Sergeant Alfred B. Hilton (mortally wounded) of the 4th USCT, were awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions at the Battle of Chaffin's Farm in September 1864, during the campaign to take Petersburg.
- Corporal Andrew Jackson Smith of the 55th Massachusetts (Colored) Volunteer Infantry was recommended for the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Battle of Honey Hill in November 1864. Smith prevented the regimental colors from falling into enemy hands after the color sergeant was killed. Due to a lack of official records, was not awarded the medal until 2001.
Two unidentified African American Union Army soldiers, full-length portrait, wearing uniforms, c. 1864
Legacy and honors
- In September 1996, a national celebration in commemoration of the service of the United States Colored Troops was held.
- The African American Civil War Memorial (1997), featuring Spirit of Freedom by sculptor Ed Hamilton, was erected at the corner of Vermont Avenue and U Street, NW in the capital, Washington, DC. It is administered by the National Park Service.
- In 1999 the African American Civil War Museum opened nearby.
- In July 2011, it celebrated a grand opening of its new museum facility at 1925 Vermont Avenue, just across from the Memorial. It plans four years of related events during the 150th anniversary of the Civil War and the 50th anniversary of the Civil Rights Movement, to commemorate African-American contributions under the theme: "From the Civil War to Civil Rights".
Numbers of United States Colored Troops by state, North and South
|District of Columbia||3,269||Georgia||3,486|
|Michigan||1,387||Total from the South||93,796|
|New Hampshire||125||Not accounted for||5,083|
|Total from the North||79,283|
United States Colored Troops in Missouri:
Finding African American History at the Missouri State Archives
History of United States Colored Troops
Facts About U.S. Colored Troops, and Slave Refugees of Civil War Missouri (and beyond)
- 1st Missouri Colored Infantry (62nd U.S. Colored Infantry)
- 2nd Missouri Colored Infantry (65th U.S. Colored Infantry)
- 3rd Missouri Colored Infantry (67th U.S. Colored Infantry)
- 4th Missouri Colored Infantry (68th U.S. Colored Infantry)