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May 29, 2011

First DC-3 Was Assigned to Sedalia Army Airfield in 1942 - 24th Troop Carrier, 310th Troop Carrier Squadron and 442nd

Sedalia Army Air Field, Warrensburg, Missouri - Whiteman Air Force Base today

On November 1942, the installation became Sedalia Army Air Field and was assigned to the XII Troop Carrier Command of the Army Air Force. The field served as a training site for glider tactics and paratroopers. It was one of the eight bases in the United States dedicated to training glider pilots for combat missions performed by the Troop Carrier Command. Pilots flew C-46 or C-47 transports and several types of cargo and personnel gliders, usually the Waco CG-4A. The forest green, fabric-covered gliders could carry 15 fully equipped men or a quarter-ton truck plus a smaller crew. They were towed in either single or double tow behind the transport aircraft and could land on fields not equipped for larger aircraft. http://whiteman-air-force-base.co.tv/









D-Day 82nd Airborne members check their equipment before boarding a 442nd Troop Carrier Group C-47 bound for Drop Zone "T" near St. Mere Eglise in Normandy on D-Day, June 6, 1944. The 442nd Troop Carrier Group launched 45 C-47s with approximately 20 soldiers in each aircraft. The 442nd TCG was the World War II predecessor of the 442nd Fighter Wing, an Air Force Reserve Command A-10 Thunderbolt II unit based at Whiteman Air Force Base, Mo. (Photo courtesy of the Herky Barbour estate)
WHITEMAN AIR FORCE BASE, Mo. -- (Editor's Note: This is a reprint of a June 2009 story by now-retired Master Sgt. Bill Huntington, 442nd Fighter Wing Public Affairs).

The 442nd Fighter Wing flag is adorned with battle streamers reflecting the unit's accomplishments through its history. One streamer, a simple blue ribbon with two words embroidered in white on it, reads "Normandy Invasion."

Seventy years ago, in the early hours of June 6, 1944, the 442nd Troop Carrier Group launched 45 C-47 Skytrain transports, laden with 700 members of the 82nd Airborne's 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, destined for the French countryside just northwest of the small town of St. Mere Eglise.

The journey to Normandy and "Drop Zone T" on D-Day began only nine months before at Sedalia Army Air Field, now Whiteman Air Force Base, as the Group formed from a collection of veteran aviators, volunteers and draftees under the command of then-Major Charles M. Smith. Major Smith organized four flying squadrons, the 303rd, 304th, 305th and 306th Troop Carrier Squadrons, each commanded respectively by Robert G. Whittington, Jr., Kenneth L. Glassburn, John A. Crandall and Royal S. Thompson. Also assigned to the 442nd were the100th Service Group and the 464th Air Service Group, with additional subordinate units.

The Group trained around the central Missouri area flying the C-47 and the Waco CG-4A combat assault glider. Before their departure to Europe in March 1944, the Group also trained in Alliance, Neb., Baer Field, Ind. and Pope Field, N.C.

Landon Cozad, a 24-year-old first lieutenant, and a C-47 pilot, came on board with the 442nd in November of 1943 when the group was at Alliance, Neb., and was assigned to the 303rd TCS.

Cozad said of Alliance, and of the subsequent locations, that all of their training had a greater purpose than just being good pilots.

At Pope Field the group would work with the airborne paratroopers based at nearby Ft. Bragg to gain a sense of what it would be like to drop them when D-day arrived.
"We were at Pope for two months in training," said Bill Silberkleit, a navigator with the 305th Troop Carrier Squadron. "We doing practice drops and getting to know the people we would be flying with."

As a navigator, Silberkleit, assigned to the 305th Troop Carrier Squadron, had to take a different training path and had joined up with the 442nd after it arrived at Pope Field.
The air echelon of the 442nd flew the C-47s across the Atlantic by way of South America Ascension Island and Africa while the rest of the Group departed New York City aboard the refitted-for-war ocean liner, the Queen Mary.

The dangerous nature of their business hit the Group in North Africa when they lost one C-47 in a crash landing.

"There was a hell of a sandstorm that day and even though we flew at high altitudes, which was unusual for us, there was still sand at that altitude," Cozad said. "They lost an engine and I think the problem with a single engine landing is that you are afraid you won't make it to the field. As a result they overshot."

The crash claimed all but one person aboard the aircraft as it plowed into tall tree stumps from a recently logged area off the end of the runway. Despite the losses, the 442nd moved northward. 
 
I Troop Carrier Command - August 1945  First CIS Grads Sedalia Army Airfield  Capt. J.T. Hamilton, Capt. A.J. Cieri, Capt. W.D. Riess, Capt. C.S. Palms, Capt. C.L. Brown, Capt. J.W. Christian,  1st Lt.  W.F. Brooks, 1st Lt. C.J. Harding, 1st Lt. P.C. Bowen, Jr., Capt. E.B. Lewis, Capt. W.T. Brown, 1st Lt. L.A. Jackley, Capt. J. A. O'Berg.  Front Row 1st Lt. H.J. Bohnert, Jr., Capt. L. J. Harlety, Capt. S. A. Oliphant,  Capt. L. J. Carlise, Capt. M. Johnson, Capt. R. J. Weezey, 1st Lt. F. W. Dill, Capt. G. W. Lee, 1st Lt. A. Kelly, Capt. J.E. Allen, 1st Lt. M.L. Hasebrock,  Army Air Corps



Both air and ground components of the Group arrived within a day of each other at the 442nd's new duty station at Fulbeck, England, a rural air field 120 miles north of London.
As the group settled in to their new surroundings Bill Silberkleit received temporary duty orders.

"I was there about three weeks when I was assigned to North Witham for pathfinder training," Silberkleit said.

Even though he'd been at Fulbeck a short while it was long enough to get a sense of how many other airfields were in the area.

"One thing interesting about Fulbeck is that there were three airfields within three miles of each other, he said. "Many times people would come in for final approach and find out they were coming in at the wrong air field. They were all that close together."

Indeed with the sheer number of installations across the countryside, it could almost said that England had become one huge airfield.

For Jack Prince, a 303rd TCS C-47 pilot, life at Fulbeck was a continuation of what had been practiced at the stateside airfields.

"We did a hell of a lot of shooting landings, towing gliders and formation flying at Fulbeck," Mr. Cozad said.

Prince concurred.

"We did do a lot of formation flying, some practice parachute drops and we practiced pulling gliders there," Prince added. "We were just doing what we would be doing when we got to (Normandy)."

It wasn't all work for the Airmen and when off duty the 442nd members visited nearby towns and villages.

"We went a couple of times to Nottingham and had some fun there," Cozad said of the town made famous by the exploits of English legend Robin Hood.

While group members did visit historic sites in their off duty times more often than not, they took advantage of local pubs, gatherings and dances for entertainment.
Almost exactly a month after arriving in England, the 442nd experienced another loss on April 25, when a 303rd TCS C-47 crashed after takeoff from Membury Airfield - a Troop Carrier base halfway between London and Bristol - killing all 14 aboard the aircraft.

On the ground English farmer, Ernest Huzzey, was farming the same field where the crash occurred.

"It was banking," he said. "It was flying over the woods. It clipped the top of a tree and brought it down. It exploded when it hit the ground, not far from where I had just been working. There were 14 or 15 of them."

Fourteen members of the 442nd TCG - most from the 303rd squadron -- died in the crash, the single largest loss of life in the history of the unit.

A group of 303rd TCS members, led by Colonel Smith, with Maj. Whittington, 303rd TCS commander, attended a funeral service for the men on Saturday, April 29, at Brookwood American Cemetery near Bagshot, England. One of the Airmen, because of his religious faith, had been buried at the same cemetery two days earlier. The next day, a memorial service, led by Group Chaplain Robert Tindall, was held at the chapel back at Fulbeck.
As D-day preparations progressed through into May, Colonel Smith, kept the unit on task meeting their training requirements and focused them on being proficient in dropping paratroopers. The glider pilots sensed that they might not be part of the initial assault. Still, they worked to be sure the Group was ready, and many times they worked in areas outside of flying.

In glider pilot Jim Clark's journal he made the following entries.

June 1, 1944 - Up early to make sure all things are going well at transportation. Many things tell me that the invasion is getting closer every day.

June 3, 1944 - Things are hot now - I spent the day overseeing that our tow ships are properly marked. We put black and white stripes two-feet wide on each wing and the fuselage. Each plane is equipped with life rafts, life preservers, flak suits and ammunition for all firearms.

June 4, 1944 - A rainbow appeared in the sky this evening - a good omen. It doesn't look as if our gliders are going to be used in the first assault and we are disappointed.
Despite the disappointment, Clark spent the day working on the tow tropes and intercom connection wires to ensure all was in good shape when they were called upon.
While Clark pursued his task, over at Witham, navigator Bill Silberkleit learned that the invasion was at hand, or so they thought. As it would turn out, weather in the English Channel prevented the June 5th assault and Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight Eisenhower put the operation on a 24-hour hold.

"On June 4th, they briefed us about D-day, which was supposed to happen on June 5th, and sent us back to our units with the instructions not to tell anyone what we knew," Silberkleit said. "Of course it was delayed a day and I had to sit on that."

"We had a mock run through of going every day for a week or so and we never were told which day that we were going to go," Kozad added. "We'd march down to the flight line and the paratroopers would be lounging around in the grass under the wing, sometimes to be in the shade. Then we'd all board the airplane but we never went.

"One day we marched down there and they took us into a meeting room and they said, 'Today's the day.' We all set our watches and I took some notes," he said. "We were given maps and escape kits with a little American money in them."

"When they decided it was a no-go, they quarantined everybody and you couldn't go anywhere," Prince said. "So we just kind of hung around waiting for them to say it was time to go."

Finally, in the late evening hours of June 5, aircrews and paratroopers alike made their way to the C-47s, each silhouetted by the full moon, and loaded up for the mission.

"They all had about three-hundred pounds of equipment on them and they couldn't even get on board," Silberkleit said of the paratroopers. "We had to take two of us to sort of push them up piggy back to get them into the aircraft. They just had so much stuff on them.

"They were gung ho they were all really ready to go," he said. "I didn't see any of them that were reluctant; they weren't frightened, that's for damned sure."

At 19 minutes after midnight, Mission Boston, serial 26 - comprised of 45 C-47s of the 442nd Troop Carrier Group - took off into the night sky to begin what became termed as the "Longest Day."

After the Group formed up the serial turned south and in the lead ship, with Colonel Smith at the controls, navigator Bill Silberkleit guided the group over the darkened English countryside.

"We flew from Fulbeck down towards southern England to a jumping-off point down there near Bournemouth," Silberkleit said. "From there we would fly down toward our destination flying right between the two Channel Islands coming in to the Cherbourg Peninsula."

"We came in over and between the Jersey and Guernsey Islands on to the west coast of the peninsula," Prince added. "The closer we got the cloudier it got. There was just a layer of clouds right at the altitude that we wanted to fly, around 1,500 feet. So we dropped down a little ways and tried to get under it."

"I had radar on board my aircraft and as I approached the coast I was able to pinpoint myself along the coast line," Silberkleit said. "As soon as we crossed the coast line, the sky was sort of lit up (with antiaircraft fire). There were tracers and everything coming up that you could think of. (To me) it was not a frightening thing, it was very fascinating. You don't think of those things that might happen or what is involved, you are intrigued with what you are doing at the particular time"

Driving inland toward drop zone T, the Group prepared to drop its "sticks" of paratroopers. Some of the Group was still on course while others ran into a thick cloud bank and lost sight of the formation.

"We were flying at about 450 feet above the ground and we didn't see any fog," Silberkleit said. "To us (in the lead ship) everything looked perfect. I was astounded later to find out that our unit was stacked up (because of fog) and that there were a lot of aircraft in the clouds and above the clouds that could not see where we (were).

At 2:44 a.m., the green jump light was switched on in Colonel Smith's aircraft and each ship, in turn, disgorged its heavily-laden paratroopers over Normandy.

In 2008, at a reunion of 82nd Airborne soldiers from D-Day, Silberkleit was able to talk with one of the paratroopers who had jumped from his plane that night.

"He told me that we dropped him right on the area where he was supposed to go," Silberkleit said. "It made me feel really good. I do know that we had some aircraft in our unit that dropped theirs (paratroopers) miles away. They were the ones that experienced the fog and the overcast. One of my navigator friends told me they had to come back around a second time to make their drop. They had missed it the first time in."

As soon as each plane dropped its paratroopers, the aircraft went to full throttle and quickly descended to avoid anti-aircraft fire as they headed for the coast of France and then England. Even with that, the night was not without losses for the 442nd.

"Our planes returned at about 0530," Clark later wrote in his journal. "We apparently lost three and some others had holes from flak and machine-gun fire, but the mission had to be rated a success."

One of those losses was Mr. Prince's plane, and although he managed to walk away from the crash landing, he and his crew had to spend the next more than two weeks in hiding until the Germans were driven from the area. Their arrival back at Fulbeck created quite a stir among those who had feared the worst for the missing Airmen.

"Everyone in the squadron assumed they were held captive or they were dead until one day they showed up in the Mess Hall (back at Fulbeck) with long scraggly beards," Cozad said.

The group would fly three more missions over the Cherbourg peninsula in the days following D-day. On June 10, the Group was ordered to leave Fulbeck for a new airfield in western Britain which would put them closer to France and the missions to come.

Following the night of nights that was their D-day, the 442nd TCG would go on to lead or participate in every major airborne operation in the European theatre of war.


 It was of several US locations where the Waco CG-4A combat glider was built during World War II. Unlike its predecessor the CG-3A, pictured in the America Royal Arena here, the CG-4A could carry not only trooops, it was capable of carrying a jeep with a trailer, a 75mm howitzer or a specially made small bulldozer. from Waco World
WHITEMAN AIR FORCE BASE In The Heartland
Located two miles south of Knob Noster, Mo., just off U.S. Highway 50, Whiteman Air Force Base's name and roots stem from World War II.
During the U.S.' mobilization following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Whiteman AFB was activated on Aug. 6, 1942, as Sedalia Glider Base.
In November 1942, the installation became Sedalia Army Air Field and was assigned to the 12th Troop Carrier Command of the Army Air Force. The field served as a training site for glider tactics and paratroopers.
Assigned aircraft included the Douglas C-46s, C-47s and the Waco CG-4A glider. Following the end of the war in 1945, the base closed and most of the buildings were abandoned.
In August 1951, however, the base returned to life again and became a part of Strategic Air Command. SAC activated the 4224th Air Base Squadron to supervise the rehabilitation and construction of a new base, Sedalia AFB.
The 4224th continued its activities until Oct. 20, 1952, when it inactivated while turning over the base to the 340th Bombardment Wing. SAC scheduled the 340th to received the command's newest aircraft systems, the B-47 Stratojet and KC-97 tanker. Construction workers soon completed runway repairs and other projects in November 1953, paving the way for the arrival of the first B-47 in March 1954. 
24th TROOP CARRIER LINEAGE. Constituted 24th Transport Squadron on ig Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Feb 1942. Redesignated 24th Troop Carrier Squadron on 4 Jul 1942. Disbanded on 14 Apr 1944. Reconstituted, and redesignated 24th Troop Carrier Squadron (Medium), on 10 May 1949. Activated in the reserve on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active service on 1 May 1951. Inactivated on 10 May 1951. Redesignated 24th Fighter-Bomber Squadron on 26 May 1952. Activated in the reserve on 14 Jun 1952. Inactivated on 16 ASSIGNMENTS. 89th Transport (later Troop Carrier) Group, 1 Feb 1942-14 Apr 1944. 89th Troop Carrier Group, 27 Jun 1949-10 May 1951. 89th FighterBomber Group, 14 Jun 1952-16 Nov 1957- STATIONS. Daniel Field, Ga, 1 Feb 1942; Harding Field, La, 8 Mar 1942; Camp Williams, Wis, 22 Jun 1942; Sedalia, Mo, 10 Sep 1942; Del Valle, Tex, ig Dec 1942-14 Apr 1944. Hanscom Aprt, Mass, 27 Jun 1949-10 May 1951. Laurence G Hanscom Field, Mass, 14 Jun AIRCRAFT. DC-3 (probably as C-49, C-50, and C-53), 1942-1943; C-47, 1943-1944. OPERATIONS. Transition training for pilots, 1942-1944; replacement training, Mar-Apr 1944. SERVICE STREAMERS. American Theater. CAMPAIGNS. None. DECORATIONS.one. EMBLEM. A caricatured donkey gray, winged white, trimmed black, wearing a bridle yellow, trimmed red, and yellow shoes, hind feet off the ground in kicking position. (Approved 17 May 1943.)

31st TROOP CARRIER LINEAGE. Constituted 31st Transport Squadron on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 2 Mar 1942. Redesignated 31st Troop Carrier Squadron on 4 Ju1 1942. Disbanded on 14 Apr iw. ASSIGNMENTS. 314th Transport Group, 2 Mar 1942; 8gth Transport (later Troop Carrier) Group, 15 Jun 1942-14 STATIONS. Drew Field, Flay 2 Mar 1942; Camp Williams, Wis, 23 Jun 1942; Sedalia, Mo, 10 Sep 1942; Del Valle, Tex, 16 Dec 1942-14 Apr 1944. AIRCRAFT. DC-3 (probably as C-49, C-50, and C-53), 1942-1943; C-47, 1943-1944. OPERATIONS. Transitional training for pilots, 194.2-1944; replacement training, Mar-Apr 1944. SERVICE STREAMERS. American Theater. CAMPAIGNS. None. DECORATIONS. None. EMBLEM. Over and through a grayed dark red disc, light emerald green border, piped white, a caricatured bird light green, shaded blue, beak yellow, feet orange, in flight, carrying by the seat of the pants in its beak, a caricatured paratrooper, holding a brown and black “tommy” gun, proper; all between two large white cloud formations, shadAPr 1944. ed light green, in dexter chief and sinister base respectively. (Approved 7 Dec 1943. )
38th TROOP CARRIER 182 COMBAT SQUADRONS OF THE AIR FORCE-WORLD WAR I1 LINEAGE. Constituted 38th Transport Squadron on 2 Feb 1942. Activated on 14 Feb 1942. Redesignated 38th Troop Carrier Squadron on 4 Jul 1942. Disbanded on 14 Apr 1944. ASSIGNMENTS. 316th Transport Group, 14 Feb 1942; loth Transport (later Troop Carrier) Group, ig May 1942-14 Apr 1944. STATIONS. Patterson Field. Ohio. id Feb 1942; Stout Field, Ind, 30 Ma); 1942; Sedalia AAFld, Mo, 3 Dec 1942; Bowman Field, Ky, 5 Apr 1943; Laurinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, 21 Jun 1943; Camp Mackall, NC, 10 Sep 1943; Laurinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, 17 Jan-14 AIRCRAFT. C-47, 194~-ig++; (2-53, OPERATIONS. Operational training unit, Jan-Oct 1942; ferried gliders, Oct 1 W-Apr 1943; experimental glider operations, Jun-Aug 1943; replacement training for glider crews and participation in maneuvers, Aug is3-Apr 1944. SERVICE STREAMERS. American Theater. CAMPAIGNS. None. DECORATIONS.one. EMBLEM. On and over a light blue disc, border orange, a “gooseswan” white, trimmed black, towing three white ducks by strings; all over a landscape in base light green, three evergreen trees dark green. (Approved APr 1944. 1942-1944. 13 Jan 1943.) 
52d TROOP CARRIER LINEAGE. Constituted pd Transport Squadron on 30 May 1942. Activated on 15 Jun 1942. Redesignated 52d Troop Carrier Squadron on 4 Ju1 1942. Disbanded on 14 Apr ig~. Reconstituted, and redesignated 52d Troop Carrier Squadron (Medium), on 10 May 1949. Activated in the reserve on 27 Jun 1949. 1951. Inactivated on g May 1951. RedeOrdered to active service on 1 May signated 52d Troop Carrier Squadron (Heavy) on ig Mar 1953. Activated on 20 Jun 19s. ASSIGNMENTS. 63d Transport (later Troop Carrier) Group, 15 Jun 1942-14 Apr 1944. 63d Troop Carrier Group, 27 Jun i94g-g May 1951. 63d Troop Carrier Group, 20 Jun 19s; 63d Troop Carrier Wing, 18 Jan ig@-. ’ STATIONS. Camp Williams, Wis, 15 Jun 1942; Dodd Field, Tex, 17 Sep 1942; Stuttgart, Ark, 18 Nov 194% Victorville, Calif, 25 Dec 1942; Lawson Field, Ga, 5 May 1943; Grenada AAFld, Miss, 3 Jun 1943; Sedalia AAFld, Mo, c. ig Jan-14 Apr 1944. Floyd Bennett NAS, NY, 27 Jun 1949-9 ‘May 1951. Altus AFB, Okla, 20 Jun 1953; Donaldson AFB, SC, 15 OCt 1953-. 1942-1944. c-124, 1953-. AIRCRAFT. c-53, 1942-1943; c-47, OPERATIONS. Replacement training, 1943-1944* SERVICE STREAMERS. American TheaCAMPAIGNS. None. DECORATIONS. Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards: 2 Mar-31 May 1955; 1 Jul 1957-10 Dec 1962; z od-12 Nov 1958; 8 Jul-1 Aug 1960; 1 Sep 1962-15 APr 1963. EMBLEM. On a white disc, border green, a kangaroo proper, wearing black boxing gloves on forepaws, carrying three young kangaroos in pouch, wearing green helmets and carrying a black gun with fixed bayonet, revolver, and “tommy” gun respectively from right to left. (Approved 14 May 1943.)
55th TROOP CARRIER LINEAGE. Constituted 55th Troop Carrier Squadron on 12 Nov 1942. Activated on 18 Nov 1942. Inactivated on 25 Mar 1946. Activated in the reserve on g Aug 1947. Redesignated 55th Troop Carrier Squadron (Medium) on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active service on 15 Oct 1950. Inactivated on 14 Jul 199. Activated in the reserve on 14 Jul 1952. Inactivated on 16 Nov 1957. ASSIGNMENTS. 375th Troop Carrier Group, 18 Nov 1942-25 Mar 1946.375th Troop Carrier Group, g Aug 1947-14 Jul 199. 375th Troop Carrier Group, 14 Ju1 STATIONS. Bowman Field, Ky, 18 Nov 1942; Sedalia (AAFld, Mo, 24 Jan 194.3; Laurinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, 6 May 1943; Baer Field, Ind, 2-17 Jun 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, c. 15 Jul 1943; Dobodura, New Guinea, ig Aug 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 22 Dec 1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 22 Apr 1944; Biak, c. 1 Oct 1944; San Marcellino, Luzon, ig Feb 195; Porac, Luzon, 16 May 1945; Okinawa, 25 Aug 1945; Tachikawa, Japan, c. 20 Sep 1945-25 Mar 1946. Reading Mld, Pa, g Aug 1947; North East Aprt, Philadelphia, Pa, 22 Oct 1947; Greater Pittsburgh Aprt, Pa, 27 Jun 1949; Creenville AFB, SC, 16 Oct 1950-14 Jul 199. Pittsburgh, Pa, 14 Jul1952116 Nov 1957. AIRC~FT. C-47, 1942-1945; B-17, 1942-1.6 NOV 1957. 1944; C+46, 1944-1946. c-82, 1950- 1952. OPERATIONS. Aerial transportation in Southwest and Western Pacific during World Wlar 11; airborne assault on Nadzab, NewIGuinea, 5 Sep 1943. SERYIC STREAMERS. None. CAMP GNS. Air Offensive, Japan; New Gui ! ea; Northern Solomons; Bismarck qchipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Lluzon; Southern Philippines; Ryukyus. DECOWTIONS. Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. EMBLEV. None. 
56th TROOP CARRIER LINEAGE. Constituted 56th Troop Carrier Squadron on 12 Nov 1942. Activated on 18 Nov 1942. Inactivated on 25 Mar 1946. Activated in the reserve on 3 Aug 1947. Redesignated 56th Troop Carrier Squadron (Medium) on 27 Jun 199. Ordered to active service on 15 Oct 1950. Inactivated on 14 Jul 19%. Activated in the reserve on 14 Jul 199. Inactivated on 16 Nov 1957. ASSIGNMENTS. 375th Troop Carrier Group, 18 Nov 194-25 Mar 1946.375th Troop Carrier Group, 3 Aug 1947-14 Jul 19%. 375th Troop Carrier Group, 14 Jul STATIONS. Bowman Field, Ky, 18 Nov 1942; Sedalia AAFld, Mo, 23 Jan 1943; 1952-16 NOV 1957. 228 COMBAT SQUADRONS OF THE AIR FORCE-WORLD WAR I1 Laurinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, 3 May 1943; Baer Field, Ind, 2-17 Jun 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, c. 15 Ju1 1943; Dobodura, New Guinea, 2 Aug 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 23 Dec 1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 22 Apr 1944; Biak, ig Sep 19%; San Jose, Mindoro, 27 Feb 1945; Porac, Luzon, c. 20 May 1945; Okinawa, c. 20 Aug 1945; Tachikawa, Japan, c. 20 Sep 1945-25 Mar 1946. Greater Pittsburgh Aprt, Pa, 3 Aug 1947; Greenville AFB, SC, 16 Oct 1950-14 Jul 1952. Pittsburgh, Pa, 14 Jul AIRCRAFT. C-47, 1942-1945; B-17, 1944; C-46, 1944-1946. C-82 1950- 1952. OPERATIONS. Aerial transportation in Southwest and Western Pacific during World War 11; airborne assault on Nadzab, New Guinea, on 5 Sep 1943. 1952-16 NOV 1957. SERVICE STREAMERS. None. CAMPAIGNS. Air Offensive, Japan; New Guinea; Northern Solomons; Bismarck [Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines; Ryukyus. DECORATIONS. Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. EMBLEM. None. 
57th TROOP CARRIER LINEAGE. Constituted 57th Troop Carrier Squadron on 12 Nov 1942. Activated on 18 Nov 1942. Inactivated on 25 Mar 1946. Activated in the reserve on 3 Aug 1947. Redesignated 57th Troop Carrier Squadron (Medium) on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active service on 15 Oct 1950. Inactivated on 14 Jul 1952. Activated in the reserve on 14 Jul 199. Inactivated on 1 Apr 19%. ASSIGNMENTS. 375th Troop Carrier Group, 18 Nov 1942-25 Mar 1946. 375th Troop Carrier Group, 3 Aug 1947-14 Jul 19%. 375th Troop Carrier Group, 14 Jul 1952-1 Apr 19%. STATIONS. Bowman Field, Ky, 18 Nov 1942; Sedalia AAFld, Mo, 24 Jan 1943; Laurinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, 6 May 1943; Baer Field, Ind, 3-14 Jun 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, c. 30 Jun 1943; Dobodura, New Guinea, 3 Aug 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 20 Dec 1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 22 Apr 1944; Biak, 23 Sep 1944; San Jose, Mindoro, 8 Mar 1945; Porac, Luzon, u) May 1945; Okinawa, c. 20 Aug 1945; Tachikawa, Japan, c. 20 Sep 1945-25 Mar 1946. Greater Pittsburgh Aprt, Pa, 3 Aug 1947; Greenville AFB, SC, 16 Oct 1950-14 Jul 19%. Pittsburgh, Pa, 14 Jul 199-1 Apr 19%. 1944; C-46, 1944-1946. C-82, 1950-1952. OPERATIONS. Aerial transportation in Southwest and Western Pacific during World War 11; airborne assault on Nadzab, New Guinea, 5 Sep 1945. SERVICE STREAMERS. None. CAMPAIGNS. Air Offensive, Japan; New Guinea; Northern Solomons; Bismarck Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; Southern Pldppines; Ryukyus. AIRCRAFT. c-47, 1942-1945; B-17, DECORATIONS. Philippine Presidential EMBLEM. None.
58th TROOP CARRIER LINEAGE. Constituted 58th Troop Carrier Squadron on 12 Nov 1942. Activated on 18 Nov 1942. Inactivated on 25 Mar 1946. Activated in the reserve on 28 Jun 1947. Redesignated 58th Troop Carrier Squadron (Medium) on 27 Jun 1949. Inactivated on 3 Oct 1950. ASSIGNMENTS. 375th Troop Carrier Group, 18 Nov 1942-25 Mar 1946. Eleventh Air Force, 28 Jun 1947; 375th Troop Carrier Group, 30 Sep 1947-3 STATIONS. Bowman Field, Ky, 18 Nov 1942; Sedalia, AAFld, Mo, 24 Jan 1943; Laurinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, 6 May 1943; Baer Field, Ind, 1-17 Jun 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, c. 10 Jul 1943; Dobodura, New Guinea, ig Aug 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 21 Dec 1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 22 Apr 1944; Biak, 25 Sep 1944; San Jose, Mindoro, i Mar 1945; Porac, Luzon, 20 May 1945; Okinawa, 20 Aug 1945; Tachikawa, Japan, c. 20 Sep 1945-25 Mar 1946. Oct 1950. Youngstown Mun Aprt, Ohio, 28 Jun 1947; Greater Pittsburgh Aprt, Pa, 27 Jun 194.93 Oct 1950. AIRCRAFT. c-47, 1942-1945; B-17, 1944; C-46,1944-1946. OPERATIONS. Aerial transportation in Southwest and Western Pacific during World War 11; airborne assault on Nadzab, New Guinea, 5 Sep 1943. SERVICE STREAMERS. None. CAMPAIGNS. Air Offensive, Japan; New Guinea; Northern Solomons; Bismarck Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines; Ryukyus. DECORATIONS. Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. EMBLEM. None.
60th TROOP CARRIER Aug 1943.) LINEAGE. Constituted 60th Troop Carrier Squadron on 13 Oct 1942. Activated on 26 Oct 1942. Disbanded on 14 Apr 1944. Reconstituted on 10 May 1949. Redesignated 60th Troop Carrier Squadron (Medium) on 10 May 1949. Activated in the reserve on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active service on 1 May 1951. Inactivated on g May 1951. ASSIGNMENTS. 63d Troop Carrier Group, 26 Oct 1942-14 Apr 1944. 63d Troop Carrier Group, 27 Jun 1%- May 1951. STATIONS. Dodd Field, Tex, 26 Oct 1942; Victorville, Calif, ig Nov 1942; Lawson Field, Ga, 10 May 1943; Grenada AAFld, Miss, 3 Jun 1943; Sedalia AAFld, Mo, ig Jan-14 Apr 1944. Floyd Bennett NAS, NY, 27 Jun ig4g-g May 1951- AIRCRAFT. C-53, 1942-1943; G47, 1942-1944. OPERATIONS. Replacement training, 1943-1944s SERVICE STREAMERS. American Theater. CAMPAIGNS. None. DECORATIONS. None. EMBLEM. Over and through an orange disc, thin border black, piped white, a white winge Pegasus, outlined gray, ridden by a paratrooper in dark olive drab uniform, holding a “tommy” gun proper in the right hand. (Approved 26 60th TROOP CARRIER Aug 1943.) 
67th TROOP CARRIER LINEAGE. Constituted wth Troop Carrier Squadron on 22 Jan 1943. Activated on g Feb 1943. Inactivated on 15 Jan 1946. Activated in the reserve on 13 Apr 1947. Redesignated 67th Troop Carrier Squadron (Medium) on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active service on 15 Oct 1950. Inactivated on 14 Jul 199. Activated in the reserve on 18 May 1955. ASSIGNMENTS. 433d Troop Carrier Group, g Feb 1943-15 Jan 1946. Eleventh Air Force, 13 Apr 1947; 433d Troop Carrier Group, 6 Jul 1947-14 Jul 19s. 433d Troop Carrier Group, 18 May 1955; 433d Troop Carrier Wing, 14 SQUADRONS Apr 1959; 921st Troop Carrier Group, 17 Jan 1963-s STATIONS. Florence AAFld, SC, g Feb 1943; Sedalia MFld, Mo, 19 Mar 1943; Laurinburg-Maxton MB, NC, g Jun 1943; Baer Field, Ind, 1-12 Aug 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 27 Aug 1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 5 Nov 1943; Hollandia, New Guinea, c. 10 Jul 1944; Biak, c. 20 Oct 1944; Tanauan, Leyte, 18 Jan 1945; Clark Field, Luzon, c. 1 Jun 1945; Iwo Jima, c. 27 Aug 1945; Ie Shima, g Sep 1945; Tachikawa, Japan, c. 25 Sep 1945-15 Jan 1946. Cleveland Mun Aprt, Ohio, 13 Apr 1947; Greenville AFB, SC, 18 Oct 1950-20 Jul 1951; Rhein/Main AB, Germany, 6 Aug 1951- 14 Jul 19s. Brooks AFB, Tex, 18 May 1955; Kelly AFB, Tex, 21 May igb. AIRCRAFT. C-47, 1943-1944; C-46, OPERATIONS. Aerial transportation during World War 11; airborne assault at Aparri, Luzon, 23 Jun 194.5. SERVICE STREAMERS. None. CAMPAIGNS. Air mensive, Japan; New Guinea; Northern Solomons; Bismarck Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines; Ryukyus. DECORATIONS. Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. EMBLEM. On a light turquoise blue disc, a stylized, ultramarine blue eagle in flight toward dexter over flames in base, proper, within a gold wreath border charged with thirteen, five-point stars, arranged six to dexter and seven to sinister, and having a pair of silver wings displayed horizontal and conjoined in chief, and a small, white parapack 'chute open, supporting box, in front of small grayed disc, charged with a white annulet, in base. (Approved ig 1944-1945. c-119,1950-1952. Feb 1945. )
68th TROOP CARRIER LINEAGE. Constituted 68th Troop Carrier Squadron on 22 Jan 1943. Activated on g Feb 1943. Inactivated on 15 Jan 1946. Activated in the reserve on 3 Aug 1947. Redesignated 68th Troop Carrier Squadron (Medium) on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active service, 15 Oct 1950. Inactivated on 14 Jul 1952. Activated in the reserve on 18 May 1955. ASSIGNMENTS. 433d Troop Carrier Group, g Feb 1943-15 Jan 1946. 433d Troop Carrier Group, 3 Aug 1947-14 Jul 199. 433d Troop Carrier Group, 18 May 1955; 433d Troop Carrier Wing, 14 Apr 1959; 922d Troop Carrier Group, 17 Jan 1963-. STATIONS. Florence AAFld, SC, g Feb 1943; Sedalia AAFld, Mo, ig Mar 1943; Laurinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, g Jun 1943; Baer Field, Ind, 1-15 Aug 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, c. 1 Sep 1943; Nadzab, lNew Guinea, c. 15 Nov 1943 (detachment operated from Tadji, New Guinea, 18 May-4 Jun 1944); . Biak, 15 Nov 1944 (detachment operated from Nadzab, New Guinea, 15 Nov iw-5 Jan 1945); Tanauan, Leyte, c. 15 Feb 1945; Clark Field, Luzon, c. 15 Jun 1945; Iwo Jima, 25 Aug 1945; Ie Shima, c. 10 Sep 1945; Tachikawa, Japan, c. 30 Sep 1945-15 Jan 1946. Cleveland Mun ' 256 Aprt, Ohio, 3 Aug 1947; GreenviUe AFB, SC, 16 Oct 1950-m Jul 1951; Rhein/Main AB, Germany, 6 Aug 1951-14 Jul 1952. Brooks AFB, Tex, 18 May 1955; Kelly AFB, Tex, 21 May AIRCRAFT. C-47, 1943-194; B-17, 1944; c-46, 1944-1945. c-119, 1950- 1992. COMBAT SQUADRONS OF THE AIR FORCLWORLD WAR I1 1960-. __ OPERATIONS. Aerial transportation during World War 11; airborne assault at Aparri, Luzon, 23 Jun 1945. SERVICE STREAMERS, None. CAMPAIGNS. Air Offensive, Japan; New Guinea; Northern Solomons; Bismarck Archipelago; Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines; Ryukyus. DECORATIONS, Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. EMBLEM. On an Air Force blue disc bordered red a white pelican, in flight fesswise, outlines Air Force blue, his beak and talons golden orange, highlighted Air Force golden yellow, his eyeball white, iris Air Force golden yellow, pupil black, the pelican riding an an Air Force golden yellow lightning streak edged red; all between six stars arched in chief and eight stars arched in base, Air Force golden yellow. Motto: On an Air Force golden yellow scroll, edged and inscribed Air Force blue, NULL1 SECUNDUS, Second to None. (Approved 7 Julig6i.)
69th TROOP CARRIER ASSIGNMENTS. 
LINEAGE. Constituted 6gth Trood disc, border equally divided red and Carrier Squadron on 22 Jan 1943. Act& white, a caricatured turtle in flight, with vated on g Feb 1943. Inactivated on 15 yellow head, neck, and feet, shell Jan 1946. Activated in the reserve, 3 formed by green steel helmet, winged Aug 1947. #Redesignated 6gth Troop white, carrying a large red box in the Carrier Squadron (Medium) on 27 Jun front feet, and supporting a small, black, 1949. Ordered to active service, 15 Oct caricatured paratrooper in the hind feet, 1950. Inactivated on 14 Ju1 1952. Adi- while wearing a black radio head set vated in the reserve, 25 Mar 1956. with phone plug dangling. (Approved Group, g Feb 1943-15 Jan 1946. 433d Troop Camer Group, 3 Aug 1947-14 Jul ig9.433d Troop Carrier Group, 25 Mar 1956; 433d Troop Camer Wing, 14 Apr 1959; g23d Troop Carrier Group, 17 Jan 1g63-. STATIONS. Florence AAFld, SC, g Feb 1943; Sedalia AAFld. Mo, ig Mar 1943; Laurinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, c. 5 Jun 1943; Baer Field, Ind, 1-12 Aug 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 1 Sep 1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 10 Jan 1944; Biak, c. 5 Jan 1945; Tanauan, Leyte, 26 Jan 1945; Clark Field, Luzon, 1 Jun 1945; Iwo Jima, c. 25 Aug 1945; Ie Shi- LINEAGE. Constituted 70th Bombardma, 12 Sep 1945; Tachikawa, Japan, 30 ment Squadron (Medium) on 20 Nov Sep 1945-15 Jan 1946. Cleveland Mun 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Inacti Aprt, Ohio, 3 Aug 1947; Greenville AFB SC, 18 Oct ig~0--20 Jul 1951; Rhein/ and terminating in front of a similar Main AB, Germany, 6 Aug 1951-14 Jul cloud formation in dexter base. (Ap- 199. Tinker AFB, Oklahoma, 25 Mar proved 25 Jun 1942. ) 1956; Dallas NAS, Tex, 16 Nov 1957; Carswell AFB, Tex, 3 Mar 1963-. AIRCRAFT. C-47, 1943-1945; B-17, 1944; C-46,iw. C-119, ig5o-igp. OPERATIONS. Aerial transportation during World War 11; airborne assault at Aparri, Luzon, 23 Jun 195. SERVICE STREAMERS. None. CAMPAIGNS. Air Offensive, Japan; New Guinea; Northern Solomons; Bismarck Archipelago; Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines; Ryukyus. DECORATIONS. Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. EMBLEM. On a light turquoise blue LINEAGE. Constituted 6gth Trood disc, border equally divided red and Carrier Squadron on 22 Jan 1943. Act & white, a caricatured turtle in flight, with vated on g Feb 1943. Inactivated on 15 yellow head, neck, and feet, shell Jan 1946. Activated in the reserve, 3 formed by green steel helmet, winged Aug 1947. #Redesignated 6gth Troop white, carrying a large red box in the Carrier Squadron (Medium) on 27 Jun front feet, and supporting a small, black, 1949. Ordered to active service, 15 Oct caricatured paratrooper in the hind feet, 1950. Inactivated on 14 Ju1 1952. Adi- while wearing a black radio head set vated in the reserve, 25 Mar 1956. with phone plug dangling. (Approved Group, g Feb 1943-15 Jan 1946. 433d Troop Camer Group, 3 Aug 1947-14 Jul ig9.433d Troop Carrier Group, 25 Mar 1956; 433d Troop Camer Wing, 14 Apr 1959; g23d Troop Carrier Group, 17 Jan 1g63-. STATIONS. Florence AAFld, SC, g Feb 1943; Sedalia AAFld. Mo, ig Mar 1943; Laurinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, c. 5 Jun 1943; Baer Field, Ind, 1-12 Aug 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 1 Sep 1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 10 Jan 1944; Biak, c. 5 Jan 1945; Tanauan, Leyte, 26 Jan 1945; Clark Field, Luzon, 1 Jun 1945; Iwo Jima, c. 25 Aug 1945; Ie Shi- LINEAGE. Constituted 70th Bombardma, 12 Sep 1945; Tachikawa, Japan, 30 ment Squadron (Medium) on 20 Nov Sep 1945-15 Jan 1946. Cleveland Mun 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. InactiAprt, Ohio, 3 Aug 1947; Greenville AFB, vated on 10 May 1946. Redesignated 69th TROOP CARRIER ASSIGNMENTS. 433d Troop Carrier 20 Sep 194.) 

70th TROOP CARRIER LINEAGE. Constituted 70th Troop Carrier Squadron on 22 Jan 1943. Activated on g Feb 1943. Inactivated on 15 Jan 1946. Activated in the reserve on 3 Aug 1947. Redesignated 70th Troop Carrier Squadron (Medium) on 27 Jun 1949. Inactivated on 3 Oct 1950. ASSIGNMENTS. 433d Troop Carrier Group, g Feb 1943-15 Jan 1946. 433d Troop Carrier Group, 3 Aug 1947-3 Oct 1950. STATIONS. Florence AAFld, SC, g Feb 1943; Sedalia AAFld, Mo, ig Mar 1943; Laurinburg-Maxton AAB, NC, g Jun 194.3; Baer Field, Ind, 1-13 Aug 1943; Townsville, Australia, 7 Sep 1943; Port Moresby, New Guinea, 21 Sep 1943; Nadzab, New Guinea, 10 Oct 1943; Hollandia, New Guinea, 3 Jul 1944; Biak, Oct 1944; Dulag, Leyte, 28 Feb 1945; Tanauan, Leyte, 12 Apr 1945; Clark Field, Luzon, 28 Jun 1945; Iwo Jima, 26 Aug 1945; Ie Shima, 15 Sep 194.5; Tachikawa, Japan, 30 Sep 1945-15 Jan 1946. Greater Pittsburgh Aprt, Pa, 3 Aug 1947; Cleveland Mun Aprt, Ohio, 27 Jun 1949-3 Oct 1950. AIRCRAFT. c-47, 1943-1945; C-46, 1944-1945. OPERATIONS. Aerial transportation during World War 11; airborne assault at Aparri, Luzon, 23 Jun 1945. SERVICE STREAMERS. None. CAMPAIGNS. Air Offensive, Japan; New Guinea; Bismarck Archipelago; Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines; Ryukyus. DECORATIONS. Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. EMBLEM. Over and through a yellow disc, a caricatured winged aviator in brown flight suit, with white wings, leaping over a small green island in base studded with palm trees, and carrying three caricatured paratroopers in camouflaged jungle costumes, and holding a large packing box, proper, under the left arm, emitting speed lines to rear and drops of perspiration from the head, all white. (Approved 7 Sep 1944. 
Grand Central and the First DC-3
Sometimes, even staged publicity photos capture really remarkable moments in time. Such is the case with today's photo, an 8x10 glossy press print officially issued by American Airlines in 1937. Shown is American Airlines' Flagship Texas, which many consider to be the very first Douglas DC-3. If this photo looks familiar to Glendale enthusiasts, it is because it is a very similar view to the photo used on the cover of John Underwood's seminal book Grand Central Air Terminal.
The first DST, NX14988 (Douglas c/n 1494), took to the air on her maiden flight on December 17, 1935, a mere 32 years to the day after the Wright Brothers' first flight, and only seven months after Raymond's original report had been written! The crew consisted of Carl Cover, Fred Collbohm and Ed Stinemann. 
Douglas DST NX14988 on its first flight, 17 December 1935. (Douglas Aircraft Company) It crashed and was destroyed on 15 October 1942 during bad weather near Knob Noster, MO.)

After initially serving as a flight test aircraft, the plane was finally delivered to America with an NC registration and became their nose number A-115 and was named Flagship Texas. The Texas was formally accepted by American on April 29, 1936 and "Flagship Service" with the new planes was kicked off on June 26, 1936, with inaugurations featuring the Flagship New York at Newark NJ and Flagship Illinois at Chicago. By the end of 1936, Donald Douglas' gamble had paid off, and American had possession of their twenty aircraft, and ten more had been delivered to other carriers.

It was later sold to TWA to be used in flying Army cargo contracts, and then later sold to the War Department and the Army Air Corps (as serial 42-43619) and assigned to the 24th Troop Carrier Squadron.

American Airlines’ Douglas DST, NX14988, the first DC-3. (San Diego Air and Space Museum Archives)
The Texas, in 1940 it was converted to standard 32-passenger DC-3 configuration. It was later sold to TWA to be used in flying Army cargo contracts, and then later sold to the War Department and the Army Air Corps (as serial 42-43619) and assigned to the 24th Troop Carrier Squadron. Unfortunately,  it crashed and was destroyed on 15 October 1942 during bad weather near Knob Noster, MO.

American Airlines’ Douglas DST NC14988 at Glendale, California, 1 May 1936. (dmairfield.org)

 NC14988, Left

 NC14988
 NC14988

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